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Evolution of Sexuality ReviewExam 1: Thursday, September 26th Essays:Choose 1 out of 2- Relationship between food and mating systemso Food is needed to sustain, for growth and development, cell repair, and for reproductiono Diet must satisfy energy requirements, provide nutrients, and minimize exposure to toxinso Smaller animals need small amounts of high quality food, large animals value quantity over qualityo Food distribution affects ranging patterns Ranging patterns affect grouping patterns and thus social organization and mating systems Female ranging patterns map onto the food in the environment Males ranging patterns map into the femaleso Territoriality- Relationship between male-to-male competition and female choiceo Sexual selection is the struggle by one sex for mating with anothero Intersexual Selection Female choice Choose most beautiful- correlates with good genetics, good genetics give the offspring best chance for survival Female choice favors:- Traits that directly increase fitness of female- Traits that indicate good genetics, fitness of offspring- Traits that are nonadaptive but conspicuouso Intrasexual Selection Male-to-male competition- Body size (dimorphism)- Canine size- Testes size (sperm competition) Intensity of competition is hard to measure Commonly believed that male mating competition results in increased sexual dimorphism o Females are expected to be more choosy and males more competitive during fertile periodso Bateman’s Answer- Females are choosy because eggs are large, expensive, and scarce. More females enhance a male’s reproductive success, but more males do not increase a female’s. o Female-female competition occurs when males are scarce or provide something valuableo Triver’s Amendment- Whichever sex invests more in the offspring should be choosiero InfanticideShort Answers:Choose 3 out of 4- Sexual Dimorphismo The strong selection pressure that makes males bigger than femaleso Usually occurs when there is strong competition for mates o Body size and canine size Good in fights Sex ratio is predictiveo Testes size Sperm competitiono Reduced sexual dimorphism Less intrasexual selection More balanced operational sex ration with increased population levels- Red Queen Hypothesiso “It takes all the running you can do to keep in the same place”o Leigh van Valeno With sex, each offspring is different from their parents and each other so pathogens must begin anew each generationo Bet hedging Diversity: the principle behind investment for the future By only passing on 50% of your genes you are betting that more of your offspring are going to survive- Handaxeo Indicator of sexual selection?o Kohn and Mithen 1999o Ability to construct a beautiful handaxe is being selected for? Largest and most symmetrical impress females Explains minimal wear and variation Variation is an indicator of male ability (good genes)o For this to work, hominins must: Be attracted to symmetry, quality of manufacturing must be heritable, heritable quality must be a sign of fitness, female choice was based on handaxe quality- Human Mating Systemo Foragerso The amount of male provisioning determines the mating system Increased return rates by certain hunters results in increased pair bonds If food is shared, benefit is losto When provisioning is less important, females should pay more attention to: Pathogen protection Gene shopping Results in increase in polygyny o Women value male provisioning less where males bring in less food, which results in greater polygynyMultiple Choice:25 QuestionsChapter 1 Anthropology is the study of humans Subfields of anthropologyo Archeological- past societies and cultureso Cultural- cultures and societieso Linguistic- languageo Physical/biological- human evolution and variation The evolutionary theory tries to explain human biology through evolution and natural selection Naturalistic Fallacy is the error of deriving what ought to be from what is Genetic Determinism is the idea that behavior is unalterable and unchangeable Sexuality is…o How people experience and express themselves as sexual beingso Biologically, it can encompass sexual intercourse and contacto Sociologically, it can cover cultural, political, and legal aspectso Philosophically, it can contain moral, ethical, and theological aspects Prehistory sexuality is represented in art and symbolism The Greeks were one of the few major civilizations to institutionalize homosexuality- pederasty The Romans viewed sex and marriage socially and economically Kama Sutra is a guide to sex, love, and family The Moche from Peru created sex pottery Christianity outlined natural and unnatural sexual acts Islam shared Jewish and Christian roots along with Arab tribal beliefs In the Victorian Era sexuality became more conservative in public, but in private they were not- pornography, adultery, prostitution The Comstock Act of 1873 prohibited the mailing of obscene, lewd, lascivious, and indecent writing or advertisements Social Hygiene Movemento Women were catching STDs from husbands who frequently used prostituteso Blood tests before marriage and police action against prostitutes Sexologyo Alfred Kinsey- sex more important than originally thoughto Masters & Johnson- studied physiology of sexual response A theory is a set of assumptions, principles, or methods that helps a researcher understand the nature of a phenomenon being studiedo Evolutionary perspectives Biological theory- biological process Sociobiological theory- natural selection Evolutionary psychological theory- environmental influenceso Psychological theories Psychoanalytic theory- ego, superego, libido Social learning theory- conditioning, reward/punishment Cognitive theory- thoughts = behavioro Sociological perspectives Symbolic interaction theory- prior learning Reiss’ theory- kinship power Natural Selection is the primary explanation of sex and sexuality, sexual selection is driven by the instinct to pass on geneso Variation among individualso Competition for survival and for mateso Favorable traits survive and get passed down Adaptation is the evolutionary process whereby a population becomes bettersuited to its habitat Fitnesso Reproductive successo Intraspecific- within a specieso Interspecific- between two speciesChapter 2 Strategieso Maximize reproductive

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FSU ANT 2301 - Exam 1

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