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ANT2301 Final Review 50 multiple choice 10 Sexual Coercion Know definition of coercion o Receiving or performing sexual acts involving another individual without that individual without that individual s consent o The use of force intimidation deception to receive or perform sexual acts involving another individual o Distinct from rape What is a naturalistic fallacy Genetic Determinism o Naturalistic fallacy error of deriving what ought to be from what is o Genetic determinism idea that behavior is unalterable programmed and unchangeable Evolutionary theory often camps things in cost benefit relationships and notions of reproductive success goal is to gain new perspectives allowed for increasing insights and hopefully lead to greater understanding Evolutionary Assumptions we think natural selection plays a role in biology o Natural selection is the mechanism by which species evolve and adapt How do we recognize coercion in nature o We look at behavior responses From an evolutionary standpoint what behavior are we more likely to see o Male female coercion What data is relevant for evolutionary explanation o Age of victim if female is not fertile doesn t enhance male RS o Rate of occurrence behavioral opportunities must occur often enough to be selected for o Benefit vs Cost to male ensure paternity but avoid penalty Scorpionfly example with anatomical feature Orangutan o Flanged 30 are fathered by flanged o Unflanged fathers more offspring 70 are fathered by flanged Thornhill and Palmer from an evolutionary perspective o In certain circumstances a coercion strategy male to female benefits a males RS o Evolutionary explanations focus on why males perform this behavior 9 10 reported rape victims are females Females are choosier males have been selected to find a way to be chosen o By possessing traits that females prefer o Gain access to females through competition o Gain access to females through Sexual Coercion female sexual strategies you could not disprove this one What did McKibbins try to do o He tried to break us into five types Remember 7 Rape is not an adaptation but a by product of evolved differences in male and Disadvantaged males motivated to rape when they no other means of copulation Specialized sexually aroused by violence convicted rapists are known to show greater arousal to acts of sexual violence than nonrapists Opportunistic seek out receptive women but may resort to rape when cost of retaliation is low occurs during wartime Aggressive dominant males with high self esteem and more sexual High Mating effort experience Partner Motivated to rape partners for perceived risk of sperm competition Evolutionary examples are not good at explaining anything except procreation Cultural Relativity rape is defined by the culture that is being studied different definitions of what constitutes rape dependent on the norms of society Rozee s article o How did she define rape Interplay between female choice and social norms defining rape this way depends on the individuals perception not cultural definition o Is it more important to look at female or cultures perspective Females Normative means condoned by the culture categories o Normative Rape socially condoned Marital Rape unchosen contact within marriage Exchange Rape males use females as bargaining tools of solidarity Punitive Rape contact that is used in a disciplinary manner most blatant act Theft Rape involuntary abduction of a woman from her place of residence to be used as a sexual or reproductive object Ceremonial Rape includes contact within the context of a ritual or ceremony Status Rape occurs as a result of acknowledged differences in a rank between individuals 11 Sexual Orientation What is sexual orientation o An inherent propensity towards emotional romantic or sexual attraction to men women both sexes neither sex or another sex What is the social identity o Refers to a person s sense of personal and social identity based on those attractions behaviors expressing them and membership in a community of others who share them Behavior vs orientation behavior does not necessarily mean orientation o People can engage in homosexual behavior but not have a homosexual orientation What are the four different categories Asexual etc define Does not have to be equal for bisexual o Asexuality o Heterosexuality o Homosexuality Absence of a traditional sexual orientation estimated 1 Has little or no sexual attraction to males or females Consists of sexual behavior and practices with a preference or desire attraction towards members of the opposite sex Sexual behavior and practices with preference or desire attraction towards members of the same sex o Bisexuality Consists of sexual behavior and practices with a preference or desire attraction towards members of both sexes Does not require that a person be attracted equally to both sexes What is the Kinsey scale o Better than discrete groups o Sexual orientation is considered to be on a continuum o One end has those who are exclusively heterosexual and on the other it has exclusively o Debate exists over whether predominantly biological or psychological factors produce homosexual with all degrees in between Nature vs nurture sexual orientation in humans Do we see homosexual behavior in animals o Yes only clear study that shows orientation is ram We see behavior with bonobos birds They pair up as male male because there are not enough females dygotic twins play a role for males There may be a genetic component with twins depending on zygote o Moderate concordance among monozygtic identical twins especially compared to Maternal immune reaction what is that in terms of birth order The in utero environment does Hamer 1993 found that the gay men had more gay male uncles and cousins on the maternal side of the family than on the paternal side possible X chromosome linkage from mothers and sons Physiology of homosexual fingers o Heterosexual men had lower 2D 4D ratios than homosexual men Homosexual males and heterosexual have more feminized brain Psychoanalytic Theory o Homosexuality was seen as a mental illness Gender role noncomformity Theory o Children who exhibit cross gender traits are more likely to grow up to be homosexual Peer Interaction Theory o A person s sex drive begins to develop in adolescence o Suggests that those who develop early begin to become sexually aroused before they have significant contact with other sex Behaviorist theory o Consider sexual orientation a

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FSU ANT 2301 - Final Review

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