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Anthropology~Marriage PracticesZajonc, 1966; Moreland & Beach 1992-Proximity study showed that higher number of exposures to a person increased the ratings of attraction.Schuster & Elderton 1906-Showed that a higher proportion in similarities resulted in higher attraction ratings. (couples agreed on politics and religion; friends shared similar attitudes, beliefs, values, and interests.ReciprocityPeople like positive feedback, attempts of flattery increase liking, being liked leads to positive interpersonal behavior, people prefer increasing affinity opposed to decreasing affinity=”couple’s curse”Kleinke 1990; Cunningham 1989-Observed likeability of people after using three different types of opening lines (flippant<innocuous<direct)Female CourtshipEibl-Eibesfeldt 1989-Women’s flirting behavior includes: smile, lift eyebrows in a fast jerky motion, open their eyes wide, lower their eyelids, tilt heads down and to the side, look away.Moore 1985;1989-Found that female courtship behaviors consisted of nonverbal behavior which resulted in male attention (52 items identified) Courtship more important than physical attraction for getting male interestMale CourtshipSubmissive displays: Palms up, shoulder shrug, tilt head. Dominance displays: Entering personal space, putting arm around shoulder, swagger. Resources displays: Paying for food, drink. Wearing expensive clothes. Bragging.LovePhenylethylamine “pea”•A neurotransmitter closely associated with intense passion and attraction•Surging levels accompany the initial elation and intense excitement and euphoria of new love•Chemically similar to amphetamines•“ When we meet someone who is attractive to us, the whistle blows at the PEA factory.”Dopamine•Allied to pleasure, reward, and addiction•Its release produces great pleasure, “telling” us what we like•Also similar to amphetamines•MRI’s of those passionately in love demonstrate that a picture of our beloved leads to heightened activity in parts of the frontal lobes saturated with dopamine receptorsHendrick & Hendrick (1993): Had subjects write “personal account or story of a romantic relationship”. Did a factor analysis on prevalence of different themes/adjectives Found 6 love styles – romantic partners tend to have similar love styles (Morrow et al, 1995)Triarchic Model of LoveThree aspects of love (Sternberg, 1986):Intimacy: Closeness two people feel psychologically, how well partners understand each other.Passion: The amount of physical/sexual attraction and romance.Commitment: The cognitive factors such as the decision to maintain the relationship.Equity TheoryHomans, 1969; Messick & Cook, 1983• Economic model of love• Rewards include love, companionship, consolation, sexual gratification, social acceptance• Costs include work to maintain relationship, conflict, compromise, sacrifice of other opportunities for relationshipsYour Benefits Partner’s BenefitsYour Contributions Partner’s ContributionsComparison Level = average expected outcome of the relationshipComparisons for alternatives = expectation of what could be received in a different relationshipInvestment = what must be put into a relationship that can not be recovered if the relationship ends.What is marriage?•No definition of marriage is broad enough to apply easily to all societies and situations–Establishes legal parentage of children–Gives spouses rights–Genitor: the biological father of a child–Pater: the socially recognized father of a child•Exogamy: the practice of seeking a spouse outside one’s own group•Incest: having sexual relations with a close relative–Parallel cousins: children of two brothers or two sisters–Cross-cousins: children of either a brother or a sister (depends on sex)No universally accepted explanation for the fact that all cultures ban incest–Cross-cultural findings show incest and its avoidance shaped by kinship structures–Focus on risks and avoidance of father–daughter incest correlates with a patriarchal nuclear family structure–Focus on avoiding brother–sister incest in societies that have nonnuclear structuresInstinctive Horror Theory:•Homo sapiens are genetically programmed to avoid incest–This theory has been refuted.•Specific kin types included within the incest taboo have a cultural rather than biological basis•Human marriage patterns are based on specific cultural beliefs rather than universal concerns about biological degeneration•We consider cousin marriage incest but it is the norm in many cultures, and they do not have terrible incidents of genetic problems-Malinowski and Freud argued that theincest taboo originated to direct sexual feelings away from one’s family, to avoid disrupting the family structure and relations-The opposite theory argues that people are less likely to be sexually attracted to those with whom they have grown up-A more accepted argument is that the taboo originated to ensure exogamy•Idea from Lévi-Strauss (The Elementary Structures of Kinship)–Incest taboos force people to create and maintain wide social networks.–Incest taboos are seen as an adaptively advantageous cultural construct.•Endogamy: the marriage of people from the same group–Homogamy: the practice of marrying someone similar to you in terms of background, social status, aspirations, and interests–India’s caste system is extreme endogamy.Although India’s varna and U.S. “races” are historically distinct, they share a castelike ideology of endogamy–Manifest function: the reason given for a custom by its natives–Latent function: the effects a custom has that are not explicitly recognized by the natives•With European royalty, the practice of endogamy was based on cousin marriage.•Royal endogamy also had a latent economic function.–If same-sex marriages were legal, the social construction of kinship could easily make both partners parents.•Maters: socially recognized mothers–Same-sex marriages have been recognized in different historical and cultural settings.–Bridewealth: a gift from the husband’s kin to the wife’s kin.–Dowry: a marital exchange in which the wife’s group provides substantial gifts to the husband’s family.–Plural marriage: being married to more than two spouses simultaneously (polygamy)–Polygyny: a man has more than one wife; the more common form–Polyandry: a woman has more than one husband; rare–Sororate: The

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FSU ANT 2301 - Anthropology

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