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Chapter 1 January 6th, 2014 Anthropology: the study of human beings (NOT DINASOURS) - archeological - cultural - linguistic - physical (biological) -Evolutionary Theory: tries to explain human biology trough evolution and natural selection -For example: the mating systems of primates determines group size, behavior, canine size, etc; the ecology, however, is what determines the mating system -Human genotype is the result on ancestors who reproduced with greater frequency than others Two things to watch out for Naturalistic Fallacy - confusing what it is for what it ought to be Genetic Determinism - idea that behavior is unchangeable or programmed. (it is not) January 8th, 2014 -Sexuality: How people experience and express themselves as sexual beings - Biological: intercourse and contact in all its forms - Sociologically: cultural, political and legal aspects (includes taboos such as insest) - Philosophically: moral, ethical, theological, spiritual or religious aspects -How do we determine sexuality A bit of history: - In prehistory (before writing): earliest evidence us increase in symbolic thoughts (figurines) - In ancient writings there are accounts of STD's, menstruations, circumcision, and contraception.- (1000- 200BC)The Hebrew Bible had roles about sexual behavior tales of sexual misconduct and marital love. It acknowledges the importance of sexuality in marital relations. - (1000- 200BC) The Greeks distinguished love and sex (Aphrodite and Eros). Promiscuous. One of the few major civilizations to institutionalize homosexuality (Pederasty*). Men and the male form were idealized (male-male platonic love) *Pederasty: Older men taking younger boy under his wing and teaching them how to become a man (sexuality as well) - (500 BC- AD 700) The Romans viewed marriage and sexual relations as a way to improve social standing - (Beginning in 400 BC) in India they believe in Hinduism (karma). Kama Sutra was not considered pornography but a moral guideline and way to improve society. - (Beginning 200 BC) In China they believed in Ying Yang. Yin and yang were considered equally necessary, therefore men and women were equal. They believed in Polygamy as well (which is a little bit contradictory to their ideology) - (100- 800 AD) Moche, Peru where known for rich iconography and monumental architecture (pyramids). Also, their sex pottery. (including a lot of phallic symbols) - (Beginning about 50 AD) Early Christianity. Jesus was liberal in his thinking about sexuality. St. Paul and his later followers established the Christian view of sexuality (celibacy, highest love being the love of god, etc). Their legacy was a general association of sexuality with a sin. - (500 AD- 1400 AD) In the Middle Ages, all sex outside of marriage was considered sinful (it was only acceptable for procreation). - (About 500 AD). In Islam they had a strong sense of modesty. They were very restricted in terms of union. Males completely subjugated females. Sometimes the wives were not even allowed to leave the home.- (1300 AD) The Renaissance (which began in Italy) they started viewing female sexuality as ok. By the end of the Renaissance there was a backlash against it. - (1500 AD) during The Reformation, Martin Luther blessed marital love. However, men still subjugated women. However, John Calvin believed in equality, stating that women were men's partners. - (1700 AD) during the Enlightenment, sexual pleasure was considered natural (Homosexuality still condemned). Kept flip-flopping. - (1837-1901) Victorian Era. Publicly, sexual attitudes were extremely conservative. Privately: pornography, adultery, and prostitution. - (1600) The Colonies. Puritans believed in severe sanctions (like death) for sexual transgressions. The entire community was responsible for upholding morality. - (1700-1800) in the early United States, Slaves were not allowed to marry. In the West, they viewed Native Americans as promiscuous and savage. - (The 19th Century) The Free Love Movement saw marriage as the sexual slavery of women. Mormon members practiced polygamy. The study of sex started becoming more dominant. - Comstock Act of 1873 prohibited mailing of obscene or indecent writing or ads - (Early 20th Century) The Social Hygiene Movement was a law in which you had to get tested before marrying. This was because virtuous women would catch STDs from husbands. Prostitution decreased. - Sexology started around that time. Alfred Kinsey viewed sex more important than originally thought. (Kinsey Scale)- Masters & Johnson studied the physiology of sexual response. - The Sexual revolution Flapper era (20s) and San Francisco (60s). - Women's suffrage movement promoted birth control, and entitlement to sexual satisfaction. - Stonewall riot spurred gay liberation rights. Friday, January 10th (The 20th Century) The Gay Liberation took pace after WWII and it presented a hostile environment to homosexuals. (Stonewall Riot 1969 in NY) The Queer Theory, in the 1990's, they started recognizing homosexuality as a legitimate sexual orientation. (21st Century) Plastic surgery, photoshopped images, and internet pornography started rising. The Sex Industry: - China is one of the world's larges exporter of sex toys and novelties. - Germany's legal sex industry makes about 18 billion annually. Theoretical Perspectives on Sexuality - A Theory is a set of assumptions, principles, or methods, which helps a researcher understand Evolutionary Perspectives: - Biological theory: sexual behavior is primarily a biological process - Sociobiological: our behaviors are shaped by natural selections - Evolutionary Psychology: sexual behaviors are a result of both psychological mechanismsPsychological Theories - Psychoanalytic theory: Id, ego, superego, libido, psychosexual development, erogenous zones - Social Learning theory: classical conditioning (reward/punishment) (the way we were raised) - Cognitive theory: our thoughts are responsible for our behavior Sociological Perspectives - All societies regulate sexuality - What is deemed appropriate behavior depends on the culture - Only works on humans not animals. - Symbolic interaction theory: sexual behavior is the result of prior learning - Reiss's Theory: sexuality is linked to kinship, power, and ideology (specific aspects of culture) Social Messages About Sexuality - Agents of socialization: religion, family, school, peers,

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FSU ANT 2301 - Chapter 1

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