Unformatted text preview:

ANT2301 Test 1 Study Guide Week One Perspectives on Sexuality What is Sexuality How individuals experience express themselves as sexual beings Can be explained through different perspectives o Biologically Addresses sexual contact sexual attraction o o Sociologically Cultural legal and political sexual expectations standards Philosophically How individuals groups think about sex morally ethically theologically spiritually etc Primarily look for explanation of sexuality in natural selection Darwin o The main force driving sexual selection is to pass one s genes on to the next generation The more offspring bore the higher fitness of an individual s genes How is Sexuality Determined Prehistory Most of sexual knowledge comes from assumptions inferences o Venus of Willendorf Earliest evidence of symbolic ideals of sex enhanced sexual features Biology The body can tell us about sexual selection Art Symbolism and Writing Reveals cultural perspectives on sex Sexuality in History Ancient Mediterranean Includes some of the earliest writing forms o Concepts of what activities sensations etc are considered sexual o Accounts of STDs menstruation circumcision contraception prostitution Rules regulated by Hebrew Bible regarding what is isn t sexually appropriate The Hebrews 1000 200 BC o Rules about sexual behavior Acknowledges Defines love The Greeks 1000 200 BC Distinguish between love and sex o Mythological stories to reinforce distinction Aphrodite love Eros sex Institutionalize homosexuality o Behavior based not orientation based o o Idealization of the male form Pederasty common Typically platonic love sex only sometimes occurred Consumption Education lead to manhood The Romans 500 BC 700 AD Marriage Sex were social moves meant to improve one s social standing Permissive of homosexuality until introduction of Christianity o Banned under Christianity India Beginning around 400 BC Belief of Karma Hinduism affected perspectives on sexuality Kama Sutra o Not just an instructional manual but also a moral guide o Addressed love and family in addition to sex China Beginning around 200 BC Practiced polygamy Tao belief in Yin Yang o Established power wealth of an individual o Yin Female weak submissive o Yang Male dominant strong assertive Both yin yang necessary for balance Moche Peru 100 800 AD Known for rich monumental architecture Structure sites of human sacrifice o Sex Pottery Early Christianity Beginning around 50 AD Jesus very liberal in his thinking of sexuality o Male and Female considered equals Stricter sexual regulations enforced by St Paul and later followers Typically sex is associated with sin in Christianity The Middle Ages 500 1400 AD Early in the period All sex outside of marriage considered sinful was forbidden Later in period o New ideals of women developed Not all women are temptresses o Thomas Aquinas Establishes sexual laws Any non procreative sexual activity was illegal Islam Around 500 AD Developed with Jewish Christian roots Muslims Very strict rules of gender roles modesty The Renaissance Beginning around 1300 AD More focus on mankind s place in the world Rejuvination of Sexuality Increased women s roles in society o Though later in the period backlash against sexuality of a woman The Reformation Beginning around 1500 AD Martin Luther John Calvin Sex is natural o o Marriage is a companionship with equal partners o Women are subjugated to their husbands though men are often allowed harems The Enlightenment Beginning 1700 AD Exploration of female sexuality Homosexuality heavily condemned Victorian Era 1837 1901 Public vs Private sexual behavior o o Public Very sexually conservative Private Complete opposite Prevalence of porn adultery prostitution Return of Chivalry o Belief that women are delicate and must be protected Puritans Begin around 1600 Severe sanctions for sexual behaviors Early US 1700 1800 s Late 1700 s More liberal sexual attitudes o Caused groups to flee and regroup with others with similar ideals and morals Slavery an issue of human rights impacts sexual conduct o Settlers used open sexuality of minorities Mexicans Native Americans as a reason to disdain oppress them The 19th Century Free Love movement The 20th Century Social Hygiene Movement o Saw marriage as the sexual slavery of women Increase in medical studies definitions of sexuality Comstock Act of 1873 prohibits mailing of sexually obscene publications o Blood tests before marriage to prevent spread of STDs o Sexology Police action against prostitutes o Alfred Kinsey Importance of sex greater than originally believed o Masters Johnson Studied physiology of sexual response o 1920 s Flapper era enforced strength power of women and their sexuality The Sexual Revolution Rise of feminism Gay Liberation o Stonewall Riot 1969 Bar raided by police because it was for gays triggered a major riot Queer Theory o Recognizes legitimacy of homosexuality The 21st Century Rise in popularity of plastic surgery Theoretical Perspectives on Sexuality Evolutionary Perspectives o Reflects ideals of unnatural images of beauty as seen in the media pornography Biological Theory Emphasizes biology behind sexual behavior genetics etc Sociobiology Sexual behaviors are a result of natural selection in evolution Evolutionary Psychology Influence of psychological mechanisms and environmental factors on sexual behavior Psychological Theories Psychoanalytic Theory Freud Id ego superego libido psychosexual development erogenous zones Social Learning Theory Classical conditioning reward punishment on sexual behavior Cognitive Theory Our thoughts are responsible for our sexual behavior Sociological Perspectives All societies regulate sexuality in different ways social norms taboos expectations etc Appropriate behavior is dependant on the culture Symbolic Interaction Theory Sexual behavior is influenced by prior learning Reiss s Theory Sexuality is about power forming bonds Social Messages about Sexuality Agency Cultural ideal that you either interact with or oppose your culture Ex religion family peers media of an individual Ideals of a Culture vs Actual Reality what we say we do vs what we really do Genetics in Sex Genetics are a relatively new concept An allele is one of two or more forms of the DNA sequence of a particular gene The genotype is the genetic constitution of a cell an organism or an individual usually with reference to a specific character under consideration A phenotype is any observable characteristic or trait of

View Full Document

FSU ANT 2301 - Test 1 Study Guide

Download Test 1 Study Guide
Our administrator received your request to download this document. We will send you the file to your email shortly.
Loading Unlocking...

Join to view Test 1 Study Guide and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Test 1 Study Guide and access 3M+ class-specific study document.


By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?