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ANT2301 Test 1 Study GuideWeek One- Perspectives on SexualityWhat is Sexuality?• How individuals experience/express themselves as sexual beings• Can be explained through different perspectives:o Biologically: Addresses sexual contact, sexual attractiono Sociologically: Cultural, legal, and political sexual expectations & standardso Philosophically: How individuals/groups think about sex (morally, ethically, theologically, spiritually, etc.)• Primarily look for explanation of sexuality in natural selection (Darwin)o The main force driving sexual selection is to pass one’s genes on to the next generation The more offspring bore, the higher fitness of an individual’s genes.How is Sexuality Determined?• Prehistory: Most of sexual knowledge comes from assumptions, inferences.o Venus of Willendorf: Earliest evidence of symbolic ideals of sex (enhanced sexual features)• Biology: The body can tell us about sexual selection• Art, Symbolism, and Writing: Reveals cultural perspectives on sexSexuality in HistoryAncient Mediterranean• Includes some of the earliest writing formso Concepts of what activities, sensations, etc. are considered “sexual”o Accounts of STDs, menstruation, circumcision, contraception, prostitutionThe Hebrews (1000-200 BC)• Rules regulated by Hebrew Bible regarding what is/isn’t sexually appropriateo Rules about sexual behavior• Acknowledges & Defines loveThe Greeks (1000-200 BC)• Distinguish between love and sexo Mythological stories to reinforce distinction: Aphrodite (love) & Eros (sex)• Institutionalize homosexualityo Behavior based, not orientation based.o Idealization of the male form o Pederasty common Typically platonic love, sex only sometimes occurred Consumption & Education lead to manhoodThe Romans (500 BC-700 AD)• Marriage & Sex were social moves, meant to improve one’s social standing.• Permissive of homosexuality until introduction of Christianityo Banned under ChristianityIndia (Beginning around 400 BC)• Belief of Karma (Hinduism) affected perspectives on sexuality• Kama Sutrao Not just an “instructional manual,” but also a moral guideo Addressed love and family in addition to sex.China (Beginning around 200 BC)• Practiced polygamy o Established power, wealth of an individual• Tao belief in Yin & Yango Yin: Female- weak, submissiveo Yang: Male- dominant, strong, assertive• Both yin & yang necessary for balance.Moche, Peru (100-800 AD)• Known for rich, monumental architectureo Structure sites of human sacrifice• Sex Pottery.Early Christianity (Beginning around 50 AD)• Jesus very liberal in his thinking of sexualityo Male and Female considered equals.• Stricter sexual regulations enforced by St. Paul and later followers• Typically sex is associated with sin in Christianity The Middle Ages (500-1400 AD)• Early in the period: All sex outside of marriage considered sinful, was forbidden• Later in period: o New ideals of women developed Not all women are “temptresses”o Thomas Aquinas: Establishes sexual laws Any non-procreative sexual activity was illegalIslam (Around 500 AD)• Developed with Jewish & Christian roots• Muslims: Very strict rules of gender roles, modestyo Women are subjugated to their husbands, though men are often allowed harems.The Renaissance (Beginning around 1300 AD)• More focus on mankind’s place in the world• Rejuvination of Sexuality• Increased women’s roles in societyo Though later in the period- backlash against sexuality of a womanThe Reformation (Beginning around 1500 AD)• Martin Luther & John Calvino Sex is naturalo Marriage is a companionship with equal partnersThe Enlightenment (Beginning 1700 AD)• Exploration of female sexuality • Homosexuality heavily condemnedVictorian Era (1837-1901)• Public vs. Private sexual behavioro Public: Very sexually conservativeo Private: Complete opposite Prevalence of porn, adultery, prostitution • Return of Chivalryo Belief that women are delicate and must be protected. Puritans (Begin around 1600)• Severe sanctions for sexual behaviorso Caused groups to flee and regroup with others with similar ideals and moralsEarly US (1700-1800’s)• Late 1700’s- More liberal sexual attitudes• Slavery (an issue of human rights) impacts sexual conducto Settlers used open sexuality of minorities (Mexicans, Native Americans) as a reason to disdain & oppress them.The 19th Century • Free Love movemento Saw marriage as the sexual slavery of women• Increase in medical studies/definitions of sexuality• Comstock Act of 1873 prohibits mailing of sexually obscene publications.The 20th Century • Social Hygiene Movement o Blood tests before marriage to prevent spread of STDso Police action against prostitutes• Sexologyo Alfred Kinsey: Importance of sex greater than originally believedo Masters & Johnson: Studied physiology of sexual response• The Sexual Revolutiono 1920’s: Flapper era, enforced strength & power of women and their sexuality• Rise of feminism• Gay Liberationo Stonewall Riot (1969)- Bar raided by police because it was for gays, triggered a major riot.• Queer Theoryo Recognizes legitimacy of homosexualityThe 21st Century• Rise in popularity of plastic surgery o Reflects ideals of unnatural images of beauty as seen in the media/pornography.Theoretical Perspectives on SexualityEvolutionary Perspectives• Biological Theory: Emphasizes biology behind sexual behavior (genetics, etc.)• Sociobiology: Sexual behaviors are a result of natural selection in evolution• Evolutionary Psychology: Influence of psychological mechanisms and environmental factors on sexual behavior.Psychological Theories• Psychoanalytic Theory: (Freud) Id, ego, superego, libido, psychosexual development, erogenous zones• Social Learning Theory: Classical conditioning (reward/punishment) on sexual behavior• Cognitive Theory: Our thoughts are responsible for our (sexual) behaviorSociological Perspectives• All societies regulate sexuality in different ways (social norms, taboos, expectations, etc.)• “Appropriate” behavior is dependant on the culture• Symbolic Interaction Theory: Sexual behavior is influenced by prior learning • Reiss’s Theory: Sexuality is about power, forming bonds.Social Messages about Sexuality• Agency: Cultural ideal that you either interact with or oppose your culture (Ex: religion, family, peers, media of an individual)• Ideals of a Culture vs. Actual

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FSU ANT 2301 - Test 1 Study Guide

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