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FSU ANT 2301 - Concealed Ovulation to Marriage Practices

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ANT2301- Professor ThomasConcealed Ovulation to Marriage Practices50 Multiple ChoiceConcealed Ovulation- What is Concealed Ovulation?o The exact timing of female ovulation (able to get pregnant) is unknown to both the male and female of species. Humans have concealed ovulation- What is Estrus?o Marked by increases in female sexual behavior and attractiveness at the period of highest fertility just before ovulation. Period of genital swelling. When one is “in heat”- What are these three things? Receptivity, Proceptivity, Attractivenesso Receptivity: readiness to copulate when solicited by a male. No difference b/w humans and primates. o Proceptivity: active encouragement and solicitations by females to copulate. More limited in primates during estrus. o Attractiveness: females become sexually exciting to males. During estrus, males find females attractive- How do they differ between primates and humans?o Receptivity has no difference between primates and humans. Proceptivity is more limited in primates during estrus. For attractiveness, most of the female primate menstrual cycle is characterized by sexual disinterest in males. - What times of the months are humans Receptive, Perceptive, Attractive? o Constant receptivity. Perceptive usually during estrus. Attractive most during estrus. Chimps have estrus.- Bipedalism (anytime you see a list, it’s usually a “all of the following” or “allof the following except…”) o Centralized foramen magnumo The vertebral column has distinct S-curveo The pelvis rotates forward in humans, becomes shorter and bowl shapedo The femur angles inward to the kneeo The foot develops a distinct archo Abducted big toe, used for toe off walking- Biomechanics: what kinds of things affect it? o Movement of genitals to underneath the pelviso Need a reduction in swelling to maintain biochemical efficiency- Visual Cue is lost. It is not an advertisement anymoreo Reducing swelling and movement of genitals = males cannot see if females are ready to become pregnant. - Olfactory cues: we have no hair but we have hair in our armpits, genitalso Males most often prefer a females odor during ovulation (when not on contraception)- Know about t-shirt study (when males smell shirts of females, what stage of ovulation was more attractive? During ovulation (follicular phase)- Lap dancers that got the most tips were ovulating and not using contraception- Voice changes: higher pitch (fertile phase)= more attractive - Behavioral Theories o Competition – concealed ovulation reduces male-male competition and enhances cooperation among male hunters. Males cannot compete for females that are ovulating. o Pair-bonding – concealed ovulation enhances bond between man and woman by making woman continuously receptive, proceptive, and attractive. o Food sharing – Male chimps are more likely to share foo with females in estrus. o Paternity – concealed estrus exploits male paranoia over paternity, enhances pair bond. Used to confuse paternity and prevent infanticideo Increased paternal care – concealed ovulation increases the chances for male paternal care. With male care giving, the female can have children more often and increase reproductive success- Among the Hadza, can they smell when a female is ovulating? o No, because they all smell like smoke.- Males say females get pregnant right after menstruation, which is completely not right.- Huauluo Menstruation: pollutiono Males are forbidden to touch, look, go into, or repair huts, under risk of death- Kodi: Blue Dye Fermentationo Secret complex of female artso Females: Blue witches; inherited through female side of family- Blueness is inherited, STDs are blamed on women having sex during mensesMate Preferences- We’re always trying to look for increased reproductive success- Females that are ovulating prefer a more masculine face. When not ovulating, less masculine (more feminine)- Less masculine = better parental care- Confer studyo Females stick to facial attraction no matter what type of relationshipo Males are more attracted to body attractiveness for short term. Facial attractiveness for long term- Olfactory Geneticso Everything goes away when contraception is used- Major Histocompatibility Complexo It’s about immune system so we share a lot of it with relatives, which is why you don’t think they smell very good (somebody who has a different immune system). - Age Factoro Men prefer younger, Women prefer older. o As males get older, they prefer younger and younger. Teenage males prefer older women- Evolutionary Explanationo Women reach their reproductive peak around the age of 20. Graph is peaked at puberty and then goes down. - A lot is based on gender roles- Females are choosing based on resources, food, health, ambition, jobs Females value resources more than males do- Burger King study: Females preferred a less attractive, higher status male than an attractive Burger King employee- Dominance: when male was being dominant, attractiveness went up. No change in female because it did not matter if female was submissive or dominant. Looks were the most important. - Parenting ability: Photos of male taking good care of kids is more attractive- Jealousy: Males find sexual infidelity worse than females. Females find emotional infidelity worse than males do. - Homosexual: biggest determining factor for preferring older or younger partners if they are searching for a feminine or masculine role (this correlates with age they are looking for)- Hadzao Males favor fertility a lot more than womeno Women favor intelligence a lot more than men Attractiveness- Males find attractiveness more important- Fluctuating Asymmetry: males with low FA are more symmetrical and are more attractive- Health: symmetrical males and females are assumed to be healthier than asymmetrical- Composite faces are more symmetrical because you’re averaging a face. - Koiniophilia: you want somebody that looks normal, not oddo Idea that when sexual creatures seek a mate, they prefer that mate not to have any unusual, peculiar features- When we look at attractiveness, we are not necessarily just looking at the face- Hormonal markers: testosterone makes larger cheekbones, lengthening offace etc.- Facial hair: hair growth with higher testosterone levels. Hair provides strong social/sexual signals. Ancestry plays a role.- Male baldness is associated with status (older age (reduced physical aggression), higher status)- Female features (high


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