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ANT2301 Test 1 Study GuideWeek One- Perspectives on SexualityWhat is Sexuality?- How individuals experience/express themselves as sexual beings- Can be explained through different perspectives:o Biologically: Addresses sexual contact, sexual attractiono Sociologically: Cultural, legal, and political sexual expectations & standardso Philosophically: How individuals/groups think about sex (morally, ethically, theologically, spiritually, etc.)- Primarily look for explanation of sexuality in natural selection (Darwin)o The main force driving sexual selection is to pass one’s genes on to the next generation The more offspring bore, the higher fitness of an individual’s genes.How is Sexuality Determined?- Prehistory: Most of sexual knowledge comes from assumptions, inferences.o Venus of Willendorf: Earliest evidence of symbolic ideals of sex (enhanced sexual features)- Biology: The body can tell us about sexual selection- Art, Symbolism, and Writing: Reveals cultural perspectives on sexSexuality in HistoryAncient Mediterranean- Includes some of the earliest writing formso Concepts of what activities, sensations, etc. are considered “sexual”o Accounts of STDs, menstruation, circumcision, contraception, prostitutionThe Hebrews (1000-200 BC)- Rules regulated by Hebrew Bible regarding what is/isn’t sexually appropriateo Rules about sexual behavior- Acknowledges & Defines loveThe Greeks (1000-200 BC)- Distinguish between love and sexo Mythological stories to reinforce distinction: Aphrodite (love) & Eros (sex)- Institutionalize homosexualityo Behavior based, not orientation based.o Idealization of the male form o Pederasty common Typically platonic love, sex only sometimes occurred Consumption & Education lead to manhoodThe Romans (500 BC-700 AD)- Marriage & Sex were social moves, meant to improve one’s social standing.- Permissive of homosexuality until introduction of Christianityo Banned under ChristianityIndia (Beginning around 400 BC)- Belief of Karma (Hinduism) affected perspectives on sexuality- Kama Sutrao Not just an “instructional manual,” but also a moral guideo Addressed love and family in addition to sex.China (Beginning around 200 BC)- Practiced polygamy o Established power, wealth of an individual- Tao belief in Yin & Yango Yin: Female- weak, submissiveo Yang: Male- dominant, strong, assertive- Both yin & yang necessary for balance.Moche, Peru (100-800 AD)- Known for rich, monumental architectureo Structure sites of human sacrifice- Sex Pottery.Early Christianity (Beginning around 50 AD)- Jesus very liberal in his thinking of sexualityo Male and Female considered equals.- Stricter sexual regulations enforced by St. Paul and later followers- Typically sex is associated with sin in Christianity The Middle Ages (500-1400 AD)- Early in the period: All sex outside of marriage considered sinful, was forbidden- Later in period: o New ideals of women developed Not all women are “temptresses”o Thomas Aquinas: Establishes sexual laws Any non-procreative sexual activity was illegalIslam (Around 500 AD)- Developed with Jewish & Christian roots- Muslims: Very strict rules of gender roles, modestyo Women are subjugated to their husbands, though men are often allowed harems.The Renaissance (Beginning around 1300 AD)- More focus on mankind’s place in the world- Rejuvination of Sexuality- Increased women’s roles in societyo Though later in the period- backlash against sexuality of a womanThe Reformation (Beginning around 1500 AD)- Martin Luther & John Calvino Sex is naturalo Marriage is a companionship with equal partnersThe Enlightenment (Beginning 1700 AD)- Exploration of female sexuality - Homosexuality heavily condemnedVictorian Era (1837-1901)- Public vs. Private sexual behavioro Public: Very sexually conservativeo Private: Complete opposite Prevalence of porn, adultery, prostitution - Return of Chivalryo Belief that women are delicate and must be protected. Puritans (Begin around 1600)- Severe sanctions for sexual behaviorso Caused groups to flee and regroup with others with similar ideals and moralsEarly US (1700-1800’s)- Late 1700’s- More liberal sexual attitudes- Slavery (an issue of human rights) impacts sexual conducto Settlers used open sexuality of minorities (Mexicans, Native Americans) as a reason to disdain & oppress them.The 19th Century - Free Love movemento Saw marriage as the sexual slavery of women- Increase in medical studies/definitions of sexuality- Comstock Act of 1873 prohibits mailing of sexually obscene publications.The 20th Century - Social Hygiene Movement o Blood tests before marriage to prevent spread of STDso Police action against prostitutes- Sexologyo Alfred Kinsey: Importance of sex greater than originally believedo Masters & Johnson: Studied physiology of sexual response- The Sexual Revolutiono 1920’s: Flapper era, enforced strength & power of women and their sexuality- Rise of feminism- Gay Liberationo Stonewall Riot (1969)- Bar raided by police because it was for gays, triggered a major riot.- Queer Theoryo Recognizes legitimacy of homosexualityThe 21st Century- Rise in popularity of plastic surgery o Reflects ideals of unnatural images of beauty as seen in the media/pornography.Theoretical Perspectives on SexualityEvolutionary Perspectives- Biological Theory: Emphasizes biology behind sexual behavior (genetics, etc.)- Sociobiology: Sexual behaviors are a result of natural selection in evolution- Evolutionary Psychology: Influence of psychological mechanisms and environmental factors on sexual behavior.Psychological Theories- Psychoanalytic Theory: (Freud) Id, ego, superego, libido, psychosexual development, erogenous zones- Social Learning Theory: Classical conditioning (reward/punishment) on sexual behavior- Cognitive Theory: Our thoughts are responsible for our (sexual) behaviorSociological Perspectives- All societies regulate sexuality in different ways (social norms, taboos, expectations, etc.)- “Appropriate” behavior is dependant on the culture- Symbolic Interaction Theory: Sexual behavior is influenced by prior learning - Reiss’s Theory: Sexuality is about power, forming bonds.Social Messages about Sexuality- Agency: Cultural ideal that you either interact with or oppose your culture (Ex: religion, family, peers, media of an individual)- Ideals of a Culture vs. Actual Reality: what we say we do vs. what we really doGenetics in SexGenetics are a relatively new concept • An allele is one of

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