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Introduction to SociologySOCI201Module 1- What is Sociology and How Do We “Do” Sociology?-Chapters 1 and 2--Reciprocity principle- people like others who like them—more attached to the men who liked them a lot than to the men who like them an average amount-Uncertain condition—results were consistent with research on the “pleasures of uncertainty”- those in the uncertain condition were most attracted to the menEven more attracted than were the participants who were told that the men liked them a lot—liked them even more!!Uncertain participants reported thinking about the men the most, and this increased their attraction to themMore attracted to the men than the women who were told the men liked them a lotLevel on not really knowing increased their attractionSociology Basics-Develop a “Definition of the Situation” (Irving Goffman-major psych theorist)What’s going to happen here? What am I supposed to do? What will people around me do?**We don’t like uncertainty-The definition of the situation (how we define the situation, how we understand what’s going to happen) is based on our understanding of the Social Statuses represented by the people in the room (including ourselves) AND the Social Context~Social Statuses-where you stand on the social hierarchy—certain types of traits/attributes help contribute to our status (higher or lower= race/fashion)~Context-how long have we known this person, friend of so and so?, where are we, etc. (environmental cues- surroundings)—define what we are going to expectSocial Statues- recognized social positions- students and professor, woman and man, old and young, black and white – what we “know” / what we are “taught”They come with “expected behaviors”To the extent that we can “define” people’s statuses- we pull from our previous experience and knowledge certain expectations of their behaviorIt helps us (hot cognition—use it quickly—happening in our brains- unpacking the folders of previous experiences and knowledge) move through our social activitiesExample: research shows that students expect female professors to be more nurturing and friendly than male professors. / Older professors are assumed to be more “out of touch” with today’s culture than are younger professorsGender stereotypes—women=more nurturingYouth has higher value in society—closer tie to what’s happening/“hip”**Where do we get these expectations?Defining our Situation- we take all cues about people’s social statuses into accountWhat if you were the only person of your race/ ethnicity or gender in a classroom?How would you behave?Do others determine our behaviors?Cooley’s Idea “Looking Glass Self”—we perceive ourselves as others perceive us—use others as a mirror to understand more about ourselves/how we see ourselvesSocial distance—sharing of social statuesWe create distance between those that aren’t as similar to us/those we don’t want to be apart of—we push them aside and create social distance—use others to help define ourselves—In and Out behavior-Social Context- while social statuses may remain the same (to some extent), which social status they draw from changes with the location or environmentProfessor + student- when student goes to professors office hours- professor has higher social status but if professor goes to restaurant and student is the professors waiter, student has higher social status in that social contextProfessor acts different with students than with his supervisor, dean, or the president—based on social context-Visual “cues” to define social statuses of those around us—what we’re wearing, shoes, race, hair cut, jewelry we use this to asses an individual’s social status-Aural “cues”- pitch of your voice, tone of your voiceDon’t turn in all assignments—professors tone gets angry and harsherSocial Statuses are recognized social positions/where do they come from and how do they become “recognized”?Certain races and certain genders have higher status in our society—opinions are reproduced through generations and through stereotypes and racism and how we are socialized—through family, education system, media, friends, faith*Can a social status be “blurred” or altered? How? What makes it difficult?It can be- difficult—more solidified ones like race, gender, age but others, like tattoos—negative connotation (those with tattoos had low social status) and criminals are related with tattoos—but change in artistry and tattoo renaissance—idea has been blurred to an extent—those with high socioeconomic status have tattoosMicro-Level- social interactions (individuals, groups, classrooms, families, sorority house)Meso-Level- universities, corporations, hospitals, cities—larger scaleMacro-Level- political system, economic systems, health care systems—global systemsDoes Biology and Physiology play a part?—yes—how we interact and look at thingsAssignment #1- what is something that goes on that you have always thought about—I wonder why we do that—particular law? Why we interact in a certain way? Tradition? Shake hands? Pick aspect on each level that interests us—one for each—and why? Explore it—why do we think we do it or why do we think it happens? Couple paragraphs—about a page.Sociology is the systematic and scientific study of human behavior, social groups and society.Structural and institutional forces that shape our everyday lives, behaviors, and social values (pg 2).Are there no “individuals”?Can individuals (social actors) shape structural and institutional forces? How? Examples?Yes- how micro impacts meso-level and macro-level social movementsSociological ImaginationC.Wright Mills, aka Sociological PerspectiveWe strive to understand the larger historical scene in terms of its meaning for the inner life and external career of individualsThought about individualsSociological ImaginationWe can only understand individuals, groups, and societies when we recognize hat they are part of a social contextWhich shapes their opportunities and circumstancesI can buy carrots because I can afford carrots/ I go to the gym because I have the money and time to do that --- where others might need to work multiple jobs to provide for themselves or families may not be able to do that and don’t have those opportunities because their circumstances are limiting and constrainingWhat are some examples (social

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