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UT Knoxville HIST 262 - History lec August 29, 2013

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Whose God, Whose Gold, and Whose Glory?August 29, 2013Focus Questions:How were European Colonists able to dominate the new world?--The encomienda was a system of controllingnative American labor. The Spanish government would grant an individual power over X number of native americans. The landlord was expected to look for the well being of his n.a.’s. He was expected to protect them, teach them the Spanish language, covert them to Christians. It eventually turned into a slavery type thing. They were kidnapped. Beat, savaged even killed if they didn’t work hard enough. The bow and arrows they managed to try to use toforce this opposition was nothing to the guns and power the Spanish owners had.This begins taking its toll on the TAINOS (n.a’s)--1518 Small pox arrives in the new world. Most likely brought by rats on ships over the atlantic. Europeans were immune to this disease, however the native americans were not. Thy began dying rapidly. Their solution was to bring in more native americans which just began a chain of dying n.a.’sIn the caribean before the arrival of Spanish there were about 4 million n.a.’s In 1540s only a few thousand remained.The tainos were completely wiped out by the middle of 1500s.-Spanish failed in get rich quick through gold, they also failed with quick and easy work force.Next, Spain loses interst in the caribean. Other European countries take their spot. Spain shifts interest from caribean – to westward to the mainland of the americans.On the mainland you see the rise in Spanish Coucestadors. The tainos mainly lived in small family village groups and h ad local chiefs.The n.a.’s in the Americas were huge, …Aztecs,etc. Far more advanced than the small villagesthe tainos lived in.*They were not immune to smallpox however.In 1519 the Aztec EmpiresEmperor: MontecuzomaCapital: TenochtitlanCoquistador: CortesYear: 1521 …city taken over and strved by Cortez-Montecuzoma assumed his massive empire of thousands Aztec warriors could take Cortez’s hundreds of men.-They welcome the cortez ppl in…give them gold &gifts.-Cortez tries to covert Mont. To Christianity.-Mont. Says no-they lock montecuzoma -Cortez places the city under siege and starves them for goldInca EmpireEmperor: AtahluapaCapital : Cuzco Conquistador (bad guy) : PizarroYear: 1530At the time pizzaro shows, the city is in a timeof chaos and no-power. Inca empires and pizarro have a meeting. Was suppose to be a nice meeting. Pizarro puts in chains or kills the want to be emperors. Pizzaro had about 600 men with him, a relatively small group of soldiers. One emperor they save, he shows them gold, and they kill him.Reasons they were able to accomplish this.1. Diseases….While Cortez is stealing the Aztec capital, Small pox was ravaging the empire as a whole. For Pizarro smallpox did a lot of his work for him, small pix arrived about 10yrs before him. Causing the empire to bein fragments.2. Divisions among N.A. societies. When Cortez was marching toward the Aztec empire, he noticed heads on pikes of opposition. 3. Technology. Guns, gunpowder, canons, are going to give Spaniards an advantage. Guns were not reliable in this time. Steel, Swords, and pikes were still reliable for the Spanish. They were wayyy more deadly than bows and arrows like the n.a.’s had. The horses also had tehnology, with saddles, stirups, etc. Versus the Aztecs and incas were bareback.4. A mind set of superiority. To dominate or exterminate a society, the Conquestadors were sure through the marrow in their bones that Spanishculture, language, and thoughts about wealth and property, they thought that their god was superior to the many of gods the Aztecs had. *For example we respect other religionsand expect it to be real. They recorded they saw temples in these Aztec cultures as works of satan, their mindset was it was their work and duty to their religion to destroy these temples.In their mind set……….--Spaniards represent Civilization, N.A.’srepresent Barbarism.--N.a.’s cast into the cast as “the other” by spanis groups. Soon European towns and cities pop up similar to the ones in Europe at this time. They wanted the towns to resemble home as much as possible. Outside of these cities however, it was frontier, n.a.’s empires would flourish. If a European found himself outside of his city he would begin to adopt these n.a.ways of life. Some ventured as far as Virginia. The Spanish colonies on the east coast don’t surive. The French and European cities do survive. How were British and France relations with Native Americans different from the Spanish? What accounts for this difference? How did these relations compare to the ones between Spanish and Aztecs? -n.a. societies along the east coast relied on hunting, which will clash with the European thought process on property and owning yourland. Like how hunting on someone elses landis illegal, this made no sense to the n.a.’sNative americans continue to hunt on these lands, conflict is inevitable.Despite the constant fights, the Europeans continue to spread through the newland andwestward. They bring more disease, which moves inland from the eastern coast quickly. Smallpix makes its way to the middle americans before the europens even do.-Historians estimate before the arrival of the europenas the u.s. had about 5-10 million people. By 1800 only 600,000 remained. -“The Middle Ground”….Africans, europenas, and native americans share the united states quickly.-In the spanis colonies, 85% of the colonists were male. This leads to a bunch of marriagesbetween Spanish and N.a. people. -There was still a social higheracy applying to Spanish colonies ONLY…. At the top of this tierare Peninsulares, then Creoles, Mestizos, Mulattos, and at the bottom African Slaves, Native American Indians. -European colonies had a different hierarchy. With Europeans there were more women, so the European men did not have to marry outside ethnicity. In the English and French there is no interracial marriages. The English and French think the n.a.’s are hethens….theydon’t work the land, have casual sex, and are not Christians. Children of multiethnic backgrounds are looked down on by Europeans and French. In native American cities theyre accepted. Exporting of Fashion from new world to old. In the colonies and Europe mocassons and etcbecome popular. What was the Colombian exchange? What were its effects?“The Columbian Exchange” A bunch of things going


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