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UT Knoxville HIST 262 - nov 11

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11/12/13The Cold War: Origins and Early stagesFocus Questions: What factors led to the cold war?In what ways did the west and east compete with each other?How was the Cold War a global conflict?Second world war leads into a decade long time of fear and suspeiscion: The Cold WarThe Eastern Bloc Vs. The Western BlocWestern: United States, sometimes great britianEastern: Soviet Union and states under their ruleOn opposing sides of cold war, but were “allies of convenience” during second world warThey had something in common in ww2: hating hitler Tensions between these two sides were present during ww2 and before that. During Russian revolution and Russian civil war, before ww2, there were ppl who sent military war to soviet union to help fight…. This created tension between the two early onA. Feb 1945, in Yalta Russia, the leaders of the 3 allied countries, Churchhill, Stalin, and Roosevelt “The big three’ during ww2a. During meeting they all know hitlers gonna g downB. agreements at yalta a. all agree to aid European countries to elect teir own rulers and choose their own form of government – similar to ww1 and Woodrow Wilson,“right to self determination”b. stalin agrees he will enter the war against japan, at this stage hes only in war with Germanyi. franklin Roosevelt dies after this :/c. the united nations createdd. they decided Germany would be divided into occupation zones. All three would have a zone, GN, US, and Russiae. main one here is to help European countries – Churchill and Rooseveltknow that the countries under their eyes will be able to elect people and do rightf. they worry about stalin – dictator – may not be able to allow free and open elections under his rule. “I will let them choose their own gvnt aslong as it goes with the soviet union”g. Stalin knows his country has a history to be invaded. He wants good communist countries around him, no countries hostil to Soviets around him, wants a buffer zoneC. As soon as ww2 ends, in 3 yrs communist dictatorships pop up in multiple countries and areas around him a. Stalin sees this as the soviet union is finally getting what it deserves from the hurt of ww2D. From eastern countries this looks not so good, when Europe divides itself into two hostil camps bad things happen, only needing a spark, Churchhill says at a school, “an iron curtain has descended across the countinent of Europe dividing it into two hostil camps”E. However, No one wants another war. Looking back no one wanted a war, at the time they didn’t know this – western powers believed stalin wanted to go to warF. A spark arrives, in 1947, Greece has a civil war, two sides communist and democrats/republicans (democracy wanters), the western powers want the noncommunist to win, they are convinced that stalin is aiding greek communista. This alarms the western powers, Harry Truman is concerned, soviet influence does not need to spread to mediteranianG. The Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plana. The us would provide economic aide to any and all countries that claim to be threatened by communismb. The dominating theory, assumption that if one country falls another would, “They would fall like apples” If communism caught on in Greece, it would spread like wildfire, H. The Marshall Plan; America using American money is pledging to rebuild European citiesa. Rebuikd infostructure, money,b. Communism breeds in areas undergoing hunger, economic turmoil, and povertyc. The idea was if you eliminate these then communism will die outd. The marshall plan is open to everybody, even the SOVIET UNION. If stalin needs help bulding country upI. Marshall plan from Soviet Union view SPARKa. Offensive, stalin says its not humanitarian aid, it’s the us buying political loyalty across the worldb. Stalin refuses aide from the marshall plan, he forces eastern European countries surrounding him to refuse alsoc. Although he says this, stalin does not have money to help those countries J. In Berlin – New Spark, Division of Germanya. In 1948, “first berlin crisis” b. In western berlin, us berlin and French areas, they unify and make a movement to establish a new national gvnmet, a new german statec. Stalin does not want this, he believes the soviet union should have power over berlin, it is the soviet unions area, he thinks he should have dominion over berlind. He blockades berlin, separating it from west Germanye. Keeps people out of the city of berlinf. cargo planes, drop food over the blockade to “the berlin airlift” the “candy bombers” – the airplanes nameg. the blockade put up by stalin fails, the soviet union looks like a bully, the berlin airlift h. the tension rises in the cold wari. this rises to the separation of Germanyj. a country of west Germany ( democratic, us supported) east Germany ( communist state, soviet union)k. City of berlin becomes sight of tensionsK. There is an official divisions a. NATO (1949) vs the Warshaw Pact (1955)b. The eastern block forms warshaw Pact as a response to natoc. “ If one of us is attacked then we all go”d.L. Asiaa. Cold war does not stay in Europe, radiates out from thereb. China and japan have been at war with eachotherc. Before the war started there was another conflict within china, almost civil ward. Communist forces in china Mao Zedonge. Chiang Kai-Shek, republic sidef. During ww2 happens these two sides try to set aside their conflicts and come together to beat japang. They defeat japan, 1946 china is engulfed in all out civil warh. It would be natural to think the western bloc would feel for Chiang, want him because he kind of wants a republic, but hes kind of a dictatori. Because of this the us and other western powers are not all for him, theyre not supporting him too muchj. Stalin does not support Mao, communist ruler, Mao is an independently minded dictator, stalin says Mao is a surface level communist, in name only, “Radish Communist”k. The people of china pick Mao, Cheng had been corrupt, incapabale, and repressivel. In 1949 the chinese civil war ends with the communist winning, communist country lead by MaoM. Mao’s goalsa. Wants to restore peace and stability, normal phenomenon after chaos, rulers search for stabilityb. Mao wants to increase china’s influence in asiac. In late 1800s early 1900s, GB and other Euro countries showed up in asia, they carve up china so that its at the mercy of the European powers – at the beginning of the course china was the most


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