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UT Knoxville HIST 262 - nov 5

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World War 2: The Civilian Experience11/5/13John Bower: role of race in the U.S. and Japan. What is he arguing? Do you find it convincing? Read with a skeptical eye or objectively Focus Q:1. What challenges faced German civilians during the war?2. What challenges faced the Soviet home-front during the war? How did it surmount (overcome) these challenges?3. How were civilians under Japanese occupation treated?A. American Homefront-Ellise and her 5 children are the only 6 civilians or americans to die in America in comparison to the millions dying everywhereFear-People thought that japan was going to land in California and move inland. Race plays a part-Americans start clammering for the removal of Japanese discent people. -Governement removes 110,000 – Japenese internment Camos-Governement takes freedom away from its own peopleWorld War 2 = A total War A total war is a conflict that involves the mobilization of not only a countries militarybut its civilian population and its resources as well-less distinction between soldiers and civilians-because of incorporation of civilians into war, they are often incorporated Germany not total war-Hitler keeps Germany from being mobilized into a total war-Hitler wants his people to be as little affected by the wat-in 1943, nine yrs after wars start, 1939, the Nazi’s begin mobilizing their economy to a war based economy-In 1943 women begin being part of the labor force, don’t make the same amount as man, are finally thought to do more than reproduce thoughStrategic Bombing-allies strategic bombing campaign, bombers are targeting indusrties, civilian centers, big cities, etc-Goals = destroy Germanys ability to wage war and cause civilians to not want war anymore-first war where civilians have to look to skies and be scared of death-Bombing of Hamberg, July 1943, bombing mission produces fire storm, fire storm starts sucking in air. – 60,000 ppl died, tons homeless,-over course of war 400,000 german civilians die of similar causes-stategic bombing is one of the most controversial things in world war 3-some people don’t die from bomb or fire, but from fire sucking air and oxygen-German army and SS causes terrible things while in the soviet union-german civilians also have threat from soviet army invading -The greatest phenomenon of mass rape in history – 2 million german women raped by invading soviet army-russian soldiers raping every german woman from 8-80-medical records, deaths (suicide) and abortions spike post war. They are able to count the amount of rapes by theseWhat its like to be a civilian under Germany-2nd half of german labor force = 8 million slave laborers-usually soviet prisoners of war, civilians of Poland and soviet unionSlave laborers-most german towns had a slave labor place-most factories had slave laborers-these workers could be beaten, torchered, or killed for any reason-once a worker had such mal treatment that they couldn’t work they were shot, werereferred to as “useless mouths”-bombing campaigns often chose these factories, terrible because these people lived right next to the factories-male slave laborers would be hung if found having intercourse-female slave laborers were sterilized, and if found pregnant would have an abortion-germans wanted them to be pure, but also wanted only Nazis in Germany-nazi forces would conduct rades and force women into prostistution or brothels 34,000 women forced to work as sex slaves-sex slave women were polish, eastern European, never jewish, the Nazis didn’t wanttheir army to have sex with jews.-germans found raping jews, would be accused of casting shame on germany-body count, of all the waring nations of ww2, no one suffers more than the soviet union-To win the war, great britian provided time, the US provided money, and the soviet union provided blood – Joseph Stalin-at least 20 millions soviet unions will die. 2 out of every 5 people will be a civilian insoviet union Soviet union suffers more than everyone else-slavs, jews, and communists, made up soviet union-hitler wanted this space for the germans to live in-the germans march in with the intention of enslaving, murdering, or shipping out every person-soviet civilians face death from a source of hunger, something not many others in the war face.-when german army invaded the soviet union, people retreated further into soviet union, the soviet union ordered all food be burned, fire to grainery or anything that the german army could have access to-the gvnmt didn’t have any plans after killing and burning all the agriculture-soviet union ppl would huddle into cities not meant to hold this many people-people ate cats, dogs, rats, because gvnmt cant get them the food they need-nazis invaded, killing, slaving, ppl starving, gvnmt cant feed ppl…so why didn’t the soviet homefront fall? Why able to overcome?1. course of ww2 demonstrated to soviet union ppl that as bad as things were under stalin, things could only be worse under hitlerin the start soviets were existed, but hitler was worse they found2. Stalin relaxes some dictorial purposes under ww2. Has to for ppl to support war. Biggest thing = relegalizes public religious practices. Communism was a secular idealology to him, now ppl can practice whatever they want though3. Patriotism plays a huge role. “The Great Patriotic war” Soviet citizens go through a patriotic revolution. Soviet gvnmt, under communism, had never had a real patriotic feel. However this is a hindrance to people in war. People need to feel their country and feel like their part of the soviet union. Stalin brings in talks about heroic figures and soviet patriotism and nationalism. Soviet union remanes the war, from “Second Imperialistic War” to the “Great Patriotic War”. So civilians conceptualise themselves as fighting not for stalin, or for nothing that matters, but for “Mother Russia”. The defeat of nazi Germany was soviet union more than anybody. The soviet army invades berlin and leads to hitler killing himslefWinston Churchhill. “Iron Curtain”. hates communism. Sits back and watches nazi Germany and soviet union destroy each other because he hates communists. Even headmits it is the soviets who pull the guts out of germanyJapan-Japan mobilized the overwhelming majority of its people under war. “Beaurocatic Chaoas” during Japanese wartime the leadership is chaotic and inconsistent. Japs areone of the only with no main leader with the same level of absolute


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