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UT Knoxville HIST 262 - lecture oct 10

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10/10 what were the internal AND external causes of Manchu (Qing) decline? How were they connected? In what ways did Japan become “modern”? what factors led to the “modernization” of Japan? 1800 Qing went into period declineEuropeans just arrived-à downward turn in that regionIn past the argument was Every since above historians say Wing is the fault of Europeans but now they think more complicated GB demand for Chinese tea increases so does strain of relationships, tea was restricted to one port in China and GB wanted more accessBrits respond by flooding china’s markets with opium, but this was Chinas first exposure to opium but was only used as meds, with influx from GB it became recreational-à hurting the Chinese economy (where there used to be revune and profit now there is drugs)Chinese govt outlawed use of opium 1839 Lin Zexu appointed by govt to get ahold on opium situation: -moral plea- petitions british queen and asks it to stop and asks if she wants in on her conscious - practical tells GB they will stop tradeBrits response- no1 is forcing your ppl to take drugs so, 3 pronged approach Finds smoker Jails dealers Ceases opium supply b4 it can be brought in --à leads to his downfall-à Brit says cannot allow subjects to be exposed to this embarrassment-à sets navy to deal with the Manchus--à opium war 1839-1842 which demonstrates British superiority (this was during industrial revo, also fighting Napoleonà more advanced fighting abilities ) -à cease Chinese territory completely unopposed (steampowered war ships from brit vs sail powered chinese ships) 1842 Chinese signs treaty of Nanking which leads to opening of 5 ports and Chinese has to pay GB for the cost of the opium war, treaty has no mention of opium control so it continues internal factors: internal revolts,population boom 1550-1800 pop of china doubled-à strain on agriculture (farmers were taxed at higher extent)Hong Xiuquan- panic attack before exam to become emperorà series of dreams father/son relationship and not sure what to makes of dreams and continues to fail exams 5 more times so changes life paths. Becomes Christianity father/son=God/Jesus and is convinced he is a son of God/Brother of Jesus ChristTaiping Rebellion- civil war lasted 14 years-à 25 million ppl dead-àfall of dynasty also cannot deal because they have to split attention and resources between internal and external factors (above paragraph) , euro powers see this as an opportunity and press more stress-à opium becoming legal (not on law books),were ppl in govt that advocated for reform, wanted “self strengthening”= China should become more opportunities in advancements in the west but maintain values/tradtions, slang “East for essence and West for practical use”*à start to evolve but to late and ends up to spheres of influence* another factor Sino-Japanese War 1894-5 , Japan beats Chinaà china loses territory and prestige which not makes things even worse-à more increased pressure from Euro powers-à increased presence of Europeans-à another revolt “Boxer Rebellion” 2 years beginning in 1899, boxers members of secret society “society of righteous and harmonist fists”, anti foreigner movmt thought they were the foreign devils attacked euros in China was crushed but not by Qing dynasty but crushed by euro powers of spheres of influence. Allies from all over (japan, Germany….)-à forced to keep troops from other countries in Chinas bordersby 1911 too much to handle-à last emperor was forced to give up his thrown -à republic Japan By 1800 tokugawa shogunate … had rules for 2 centuries chased out foreign traders/missionaries,regulated contact with outside world this method called Sakoku translates into closed/chained country, interrupted this as Japanese arrogance and they started to put pressure on Japan US first one to open trade relations with Japan 1853 Mathew Perry shows up “requested” (with fleet of armed warships, not merchants and goods) consider my offer and I’ll be backComes back in command of even larger force and Japan says yes out of fear-à dam burst and trade relationships flowed Trade was highly unpopular in Japan. Samari (mil nobility) very opposed . overthrows govt in the “Meiji (enlightened rule) Restoration” but faces same problems and realized must open to trade in order to survive, recognize need to industrialize , send representatives ut into the world to study political institutions, they come back with all there research and compound 3 parties: Liberal- govt based in legislator and was rep of ppl Progressive- balance of power between parliament and emperor but slight advantage to emperor Imperial- Progressive party becomes their govt (conditional monarchy)- democratic in form but actually implemented its kind of dictatorial authoritarian Govt steps in and offers grants etc to stimulate industrial growth, built transportation and public education that emphasized science* Modernization and industrialization-à city growth (conditions of factory workers applies here as well, would work nude in coal mines and if tried to escape they were shot dead)Modernizing:IndustryPoliticsMilitary Believes to think reason for powers of europe/they want:1. poli institutions2. economic policies and structures3. overseas colonies wants overseas colonies fights for korea defeats Russia (shocking) and start imperialistic adventures in the pacific another country that is adventuring into pacific is America Brief documentary clip shown youtube “meiji Japan: Reforming a nation through western


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