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UT Knoxville HIST 262 - history lecture September 26, 2012

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Sept 26: Observation and Experimentation: Global Exchanges of Science,Technology, and MedicineReadings:-John Locke, “Essay Concerning Human Understanding” (Excerpts), http://personal.ashland.edu/~jmoser1/locke.htm -David Hume, “On Miracles,” http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/hume-miracles.asp -Voltaire, “A Treatise on Toleration,” http://public.wsu.edu/~brians/world_civ/worldcivreader/world_civ_reader_2/voltaire.html -Jean Jacques Rousseau, “The Social Contract,” http://www.fordham.edu/Halsall/mod/rousseau-soccon.asp -Mary Wortley Montague, “Letter on Turkish Smallpox Inoculation,” http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/montagu-smallpox.asp -Gempaku, “A Dutch Anatomy Lesson in Japan.” (On BB)-ART pgs. 26-27, 202-203Focus Questions:1. why was Britian the birthplace of the industrial revolution2. What were the social effects of the industrial revolution3. what were the different branches of socialism? What did they argue?Great britian as the home of the industrial revolution – conditions were ideal for this-London England 1760 -in englad 1. people have more money to spend2. going to be a ready labor force3. banking system – loans, etc.4. the country had bountiful resources, coal and ironwore5. briaitans small size will be an asset in it becoming home of the i.rev6.britians culture will also play a role. –the fassilitate euntrepreanueral spirit and innovation7. constitutional monarchy – did not have gov in economy8. trading Between 1660 and 1760, britians exports quadrupledChina could not become home because they valued tradition over innovationThe governments of Europe developed 1. 2. constitutional monarchy – did not have gov in economyPast way of producing goods: cottage industry/ putting-out industryNew advancements in production of textile: Textile industry: flying shuttle, spinning jenny, hydropowerInstead of taking the tools of production to the workers it flips.Factories start to become popular- invention of the steam engine – James “Watt” , cause of him factories don’t have to be located next to water- in 1770 the cottage system is still in use, britian inported 2.5 mil pounds under this system VS- 10 years later the production increase of this is close to 10x this the iron industry is improving at this time as wellIron + steam = locamotives/what is coming next1804 – first train in action. - Richard Trevithick and the Locomotive- -10 tons of cargo, 70 passengers, 5 mph- in a generation trains begin to speed to 50 mph- britian builds 6 thous. Miles of railroad track- the importance of the train to the indu. Rev. can not be over stated- more jobs are creatd cause of trains, they need people to man the trains- decrease in cost of transportation, goods become cheaper, manufacturers produce more good, goods are easier to get, it’s a chain, the train supports itself with this sufficient cycleFactories- the more materials a factory produces, the more the MAN makes- workers work regular hours in shifts. At the time this was a crazy idea, all workerscame from country side, working by sunlight- their lives are now governed by the clock- factory workers make a very strict rules and regulations made by management andpassed out to the employees.- Strict punishments - 1 sec – 2 min late = deduction of 30 min pay- 2 min to anything else late, you couldn’t work till the mid of the day- the avg work day was 13 hrs from 6am – - could not talk at all- child labor becomes common, beating a child that doesn’t follow the rules or was working fast enough was common- the technology, work force, and transportation britian becomes most wealthy country in world- mid 1800s producing half the world coal and half the worlds - its industries put together - ind rev becomes international movement- great britian has a free marketindustrialization in other parts of the world- absolutism, gov control of the economy in European governements- European gov tries to get people to excersize they attenuate – stimulate creativity – grants to inventors- Soon1750 – 1850- the population in Europe doubled- factories now become commonly found in cities –- theyre more populated, more ppl living in cities that countries than ever before - and easy access to transportation- miserable living conditions to city ppl, city living expensive, factory pay is lowAs a result Row houses- 6 people to one bed, room- living habits gross- sewers, gutters, waste, human waste, old food, everything dumped In these sewersoutside- country people always talked of the smell of the city- overpopulation ajd poor sanitastion = disease- in cities death rate out populates birth rates- population still able to increase because of the amount of ppl still moving into cityto workWork in factories- life here not any cleaner- no gov. help in any way, things in factory completely unregulated- steam engines in factories so hot- avg temp inside was 84 degrees and no circulation- ind rev leads to wide spread child labor- chidren working is not new, however this is when child labor becomes explotated- because children were smaller they were used to crawl under machines and repair them- theyre also often used in coal mines, shafts can be 3 feet high, children get down easier- steam engines use coal, coal industry grows- from the perspective of a factory worker, it made economical sense to hire children, they were paid 1/6th of the wages of adults- children as young as seven working 16 hrs a day, 6 days a weekCritiques of the industrial revolution - Robert owen and utopian socialism- Want the equality of all man kind, if everyone worked in cooperation vs competition. They wanted cooperation- socialism emerges as the most influential critique- Robert own o british cotton managero the frst industrial comun he describes will be in Scotlando he travels to the united states, trying to fond it in New Harmony, Indian in 1820’so this one in Indiana will quickly fall apart, workers don’t get alongo this is not the only branch of socialism or the most influential- Karl Marx and Friedrich Engelso they believed the ro capitalists: owners of factories, workers = the proletariat, all they can sell is theyre laboro they believe the gov works to increase explotation on the owrkerso they even say religion, art, and literature all use these as tools to distract the workers from their miseryo they publish these ideas in 1848 Communist Manifestoo they argue all of history, is the story of class conflicto they have a


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