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UT Knoxville HIST 262 - history lecture - sept 5th

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Focus Questions History lecture Thursday September 5, 20131. How did the Manchos (qing) rule China for so long?2. Why did the industrial revolution not begin in china?3. What roles did tradition play in Quing China and tokugawa japan? In the early 1500s ming china had a vast empire that covered most of east asia. Europeans at the same time period are arriving in china in great numbers. At first the chinese great them like theyre nothing, however as time goes on the Europeans stay there and the ming government finally says its enough. China then rejects these merchants and missionarys out of china. There is however too much money to be made for china to kick them out. These two, Europe and china, have been trading for a long while, through the silk road and etc. With the age of exploration underway, contact between hcina and Europe Jesuit Missionaries- catholic misssionaries from EuropeOne thing these do is emphasis the similarities between Christianity and cofusionism. They come over ready willing and able to teach math, astronomy, etc. they want to serve as more than just religious purposes. They bring with them eyeglasses, clocks, and etc. as the chinese had never had these, it was pretty awesome. They are more likely to appreciate the Europeans and their customs because of the helpful things they give, eyeglasses.Europeans however are blown away by chinese printing technology. They trade off customs and technologies. Books are cheaper and more common in china. The Europeans take from china an appreciation of confusionism. Confusionism is geared more towards a code for daily behavior, not to follow a person. Filial – respect for your elders. Humanism – an individual can improve himselfAltirism – charityResaprosity- the golden ruleTreat others with respectSocial harmony – everyone has a station in life and we should be content in the placewe are in. Ming china will eventually reach a point where the fall. 1. pirates are going to rvage the coast of china 2. peasant uprisings, they are aware of the corruption in the capital. Theyre revolts are easier.3. In the 1630s there is a series of famines and because of the inability of leadershiop, they can not get food to the ppl.4. This will only feed the peaseant uprisings5. The mings northern neighbors, the manachs, see the problems and they invade china.The invasions and revolts eventually become one problem. This revolt will come to be lead by lee ziching, a chinese man, he will rise up to lead this revolt.They will conquer Bayzing in 1644. He is overthrown by his followers and the machews istablish the ching dynastyWith time the policies of the manchews repress a little. Eventually most chinese will accept the manchews as their legitamite ruler. In large part this is going to be thanks to kang xi and qian lang, two leaders. 1They do several things to allow the manchews to stay in power for a long time. 2The first thing they do is secure china’s borders, they came in by invading through the north so they guard thme now.3They are intellectuals, so they allow diversity of cultural practices and etc.4They adopted confusionism5 gradually they will bring chinese into leadership positions.6 they establish the Banners, a military unit. 7. they gave manchews legal and political privileges they did not allow the chinese to.The manchews only made up 2% of chinas populationThe early ching dynasty was calm. This leads to population growth.Different types of food from the new world is making its way to china. The arrival of food and crops previously only native to the Americas, are now planted in china, peanuts, sweet potatoes, and corn.During this period, in the early ching dynasty, we have peace, stability, population growth, and economic growth. Because all over the globe. Things like tea, silk, gunpowder, and ____ are being sold in large amounts, this benefits china 100%China is very successful, why is china so Why did the industrial revolution begin in London and not bahzing?1. the market was restricted, traders and merchants faced a lot of government control. This limits the possible of economic growth and innovation.2. 2. Cultural traditions, there was an idea at the time athat farming and being tired to the land was better than serving as a manufacturer. This is one less reason from going from farming to manufacturing.3. Taxes. Closely related to #2. Because of preconceived sultural reasons, farmers are taxed less.4. Confusionism – this though process said an individual shouldspend more time improving character, and not search for easier ways to sell things.TRADITION TRUMPS INNOVATION IN ALL 4 OF THESE TIHNGSWe see this in the economy and daily life.Chinese society is focused around family. A joint family is ideal. 3 or 4 generations under one roof. Grandfathers are seen as the head of household. Merriages are typically arranged, and when married the husband will then just bring his wife in. it’s beneficial to have a lot of able bodies in a house, they can work the farm. About40% of chinese ppl will find themselves as a joint household. One level above the joint family is the Clan. The clan is in this context, a gathering of dozens or hundreds of families that live in proximity from each other. Often the wealthy families will takecare of the poorer families. The clans also establish schools, not just welfare. Both of these things the clan takes upon themselvesto do, the state doesn’t control it. Men are the heads of families, governemts, and clans. Legally women could not file for divorce, nor could they inherit property. However of she did not produce a son, the husband could divorce her. He could cheat on her also. Daughters were seen as less desirable than men….they were not able to work on the farm. Also, a dad had to pay a fee to his daugters husband before their marriage. In some extreme cases daughters were put to death. Widows were praised if they killed thmesleves to follow their dead husbands, it was seen as great. Foot binding is very popular in this time period. An awkward walk in women was seen as dainty. This was seen as an upperclass wealthy thing because they can show that their daughter will neve be able to work, but it was ok because they could pay for her living she wouldn’t work. Poor people were also doing this to their daughters, to hope they could marry someone rich. The ching are around until 1911During the 1400s the situation in japan waz quit chaotic. In 1603, tokuagawa Ieyasu will declare


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