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UT Knoxville HIST 262 - Nov 19 lect

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Discussion – don’t read 2 ho chi minh documentsFocus Questions:What challenges faced newly independent countries in Africa?How have different African states attempted to handle those challenges?1. Post WW2 perioda. Countries in Africa under europena rule for half a centuryb. Colonial rule’s benefits to Africa – Industry and Infostructurei. Modern transportationii. Modern communication networksiii. Modern industries foundediv. Would set up democratic political systems – lay ground work for democratic movements in Africa – tiny embryo laid herev. This benefits were not universal through Africa thoughvi. Areas that did have these modern things, had the white Europeans running themvii. Africans forced to work remedial tasksviii. So once white people pulled out they wouldn’t have abilityc. Negatives i. Gross human rights ii. Father looking at severed hand of daughter for him not working hard for Europeansiii. Emergence of nationalism and movements1. Leads to creation of African political organizations2. Pull for political rights for Africans3. Most emerge after ww1, at first scattered. 4. Mainly focused on improving living conditions5. Advocating for reform within the colonial system, not system as a wholeiv. ww2 – organizations expand1. begin advocating for African independence after ww22. largely peaceful, nonviolent, lead by upper class intellectuals3. exceptions to this = in Kenya the Mau Mau Revolt (1952 – 60) 4. A violent mvment for the Kenyans independence5. Not European educated African elites6. Reason for revolt: British colonial authorities start taking land from African farmers and give to white7. About 100 british Europeans die, 3000 kenyan civilians/mau revolt fighters die8. Rebellion scares great britian9. They believe if they don’t curl back their rule in Kenya something bad will happend. Independence in other African countriesi. South America – under European rule1. White euros cxall all shots2. South African nationalists form the African National Congress in 19123. Dominated by black south African elites4. Its initial goal – not independence, revolution, just reform and _____ with in their political systemii. APARTHEID passed--- In response, the white elites start this. Dramatic segregation of whites and blacks1. start out simple, ends up being radical2. country gains independence technically3. but white power stays in power until 60 yrs later4. defacto independence wont come for decades2. by late 1960s – most of African continent is independent3. Reasons independence comes later in Africaa. Diversity is broad in Africa. No cultural, ethnic, or linguistic unity across the continent. – “Divide and Rule” exploit each group in Africa off of itself – no attack on colonial system ableb. Imperialism in Africa more recent4. Challenges faced for coloniesa. Lines drawn for regions by europeans, political boundaries use thisi. Some countries borders so scattered many different ethnic/linguistic groups mixedb. 200 different ethnic groups and 75 diffferent languages in one countryi. problem for anyone trying to be a president, ruler, leaderii. African leaders aware of this problemc. Pan- Africanism and the Organization of African Unityi. Pan Africanism - A search for continental unity that would transcend national boundariesii. pan Africanism leads to OHH’1. solarity behind African nations2. pledge to foster democracies within respective nations3. cooperate economically with African naeughbors4. hoped for prosperity increase5. respect soveirenty of African states5. Colonialism = countries exploited for natural resources, usually one in particulara. THIS IS AN ADDITIONAL PROBLEM – ECONOMIC PROBS CAUSEDb. Example – rubber in the congoc. They weren’t really interested in diversifying the countries, when theypull out of places with all of the n. resources, the colony fails6. Neyo Colonialsism a. Instead of political, military, or blah blah failures in gvnment, the economy just failsb. Country has to ask for help7. Another difficulty in post-colonial Africa period – pipulations bomba. Coupled by Food shortagei. Caused by weather ii. The size of the sahra desert constantly expanding in Africa8. Problem = AIDSa. Final stage of HIVb. Pregnancy, sex, breast feedingc. In early ‘80’s discovered in NYC by homos and drug usersd. In 2006, 40 mil ppl living w virus, e. In 2006 20 mil have diedf. 25 million of them lived in sub Saharan Africa – half live hereg. Africa’s health care unable to take care ofh. HIV uncureable, and expensive for treatments9. responses to post-colonial problems, a. africas not a giant bulk anymoreb. now looked at as separate being10. Tansaniaa. Socialist b. State takes control of everythingc. Presidnet of – Julius Nyerere, puts together document = The Arusha Declarationd. Does not advocate for a stalin like establishment, neither is he advocating for a multi party democracy,e. He says it will be better for his country if there is one political party the whole country relates withf. His one party is still in controlg. In declaration:i. Can only make certain amount of money – goes back to state if too muchii. One person responsible for crops in village, one village = one unitiii. Wanted this to lead to less competition and ethnic strife, corruption, economic instabilityiv. Tazanias climate and enviornemnt, little n. resources, lead to countries poornessv. He steps down in the 80s11. Kenyaa. Better soilb. Stronger economyc. Situation worse that in Tansaniad. Kenya rife with povertye. No equally distributed wealthf. The country is one of the most populose countries in Africag. 40 mill ppl, 25 % homeless, 50% below poverty levelh. unrest because of thisi. keny aruled by one dictator after anotherj. all problems still in Kenya12. South Africaa. Story most heard, regardedb. White minority inforced race and economic influencec. 2 sources they feel pressurei. Africans – blackii. Around the world racist political system idea buids up and keeps talking about s. Africaiii. blacks and whites allowed to vote togetherd. Nelson Mandela presidenti. Joined African national congress during ww2ii. Increased self governmentiii. No racism – wanted it goneiv. Spent 25 yrs in jail, becomes a symbol for freedom and standing against injusticev. When released, he immediately begins crusading against parthy and increasing vi. Leader of African national congressvii. Talks to white president of s. Africaviii. Both men win noble peace


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