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UT Knoxville HIST 262 - History lecture – September 10

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History Lecture – September 10, 2013Readings: - James Gronniosaw, “A narrative of the most remarkable particulars in the life of James Albert Ukawsaw Gronniosaw,” http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/toccer-new2?id=GroGron.sgm&images=images/modeng&data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed&tag=public&part=1&division=div1 -Olaudah Equiano, “Olaudah Equiano Recalls the Middle Passage,” from The Life of Olaudah Equiano, http://www.historytools.org/sources/equiano.pdf -Willem Bosman, “ An Eyewitness Describes the Slave Trade in Guinea” http://college.cengage.com/history/world/resources/students/primary/eyewitness.htm -ART pgs. 158-159, 188-191, 194-195, 198-201, 264-265Lecture:Europe Transformed: The Renaissance and the ReformationFocus Questions:1. What was the Renaissance? How did it evolve over time?2. What was the Reformation and how did the Catholic Church Respond?3. What were the consequences of the Reformation and Counter Reformation? Renaissance = revival, refers to broad amount European History. 1300s – 1600s. Marked by a resurgence in classical learning. Resurgence in greek and roman ideas, art, and philosophy. An upper class movement. The thinkers of the time have labeled the movement the renaissance, the rebirth, causethey see themselves as europes saviors. Ren. Is largely going to be a response to the sqwaller that was going on. Period leading up to the 1400s as the dark ages. REnaisssance thinkers felt anomasity to the catholic church. They thought it was responsibele for leading Europe to the dark ages, and the catholic church was unable to pull them out. The renaissance thinkers wanted to define themselves as anything opposite of the catholic church. SCHOLASTICISM… The ultimate purpose ofall learning is aiming towards learning more about christianty. Renaissance thinkers saw scholastism as narrowminded. They will spend a lot of effort trying to build this down. HUMANISM is what the renaissance thinkers will look towards bringing up. Humanism emphasizes human worth, rationality over blind faith, “human beings are inherently good” opposing the “sinful nature of man” that priests and popes believe. Humanists are concerned about learning more about man-kinds position in the world. Focus on science, math, history, poetry, political science. Scholarship and learning goes from being focused on god to being focused on man, from the church to the world, being concerned with your heavenly future to your earthly now. A new ideal of the individual Used to be someone who focused on church The “renaissance man” believed someone should focus on a multitude of interest…and should seek to master whatever you attempt Leonardo Da Vinci, renaissance man, painter, sculpture, anatomy, maps and blueprints, designs for flying machine Michalengelo, galileo, & Matthew Afely – founded politicalscience Renaissance movement will begin in Italy around 1400, InFlorence, naples. Prior to renaissance movement… Italian city states are middle men between Europe and middle east, theyre wealthy, because of wealth they have leauisure time, moretime to focus on other things. Also more money to throw artists, also artists have more time to hone their craft. Italian city states are cosmopolitan, diverse. With time italys ground zero idea of the renaissance will fade – the renaissance will follow trade around 1550s andmove northward.  By the 1550s the meditteranian sea decreases in importance and instead places like England, the Netherlands, and france will take lead in the renaissance. The renaissance evolves. Religious Humanism is introduced…still critical of catholic church and its abuses in power and rituals and traditions To set it apart from renaissance in Italy, they do not believe you should leavebehind Christianity completely, but that you should apply renaissance and humanistic ideas to Christianity.  Desiderius Erasmus – the most promonite of the religious humanists. Believes the bible should serve as the guide book as everyday, should be the focus- internal piety over rituals, its not about which church rituals on Sunday morning, but - he is a necessary prerequisite for the emergence of the protestante reformation - Erasmus laid the egg that Martin Luther hatched.- They want the bible to be in other hands, until this point bible was only available in latin, regular people could only understand the bible on Sunday morning if it were translated.- These movers for the bible wanted and pulled for new technology in printingJohann Gutenberg – 1450 – invented European moveable type – prior to this printing was on wood. First major work mass produced by his invention, The Bible, called the Gutnberg Bibles.Within a generation these printers were used to produce other booksSoon the bible was printed in the Venacular, meaning common word, understandable wordsThis decreases the power of the clergy, priests, theyare nolonger needed to understand the bible, no longer gods middle men.This production of the bible is one way the catholic church feels their importance is decreased. Governments dfuring the 2nd half of the renaissance will buold up their governments, become more powerful, England, france and spain, sometimes labeled the renaissance states.Machiavelli’s THE PRINCE – the founding of Political Science. His book The Prince is concerned with the acquiring, maintenance, and expansion of power, with the ultimate goal of maintaining order. “that’s Machiavelli of someone” – his ideas are incredibly influential. Rulers, kings and governments will learn from what hes saying.Catholic church under seize & nervous1. bible printed2. states getting sustained3. martin luther and what will soon become the protestintreformationMartin Luther & The Reformation – obsessed with how to get into heaven. Doesn’t understand how someone can doenough good works in his life to cancel out his inner sining nature. - has problems with some of the practices going on in the church – like the selling of endulgences – a pardon for sins. A clergy could go to priest and hand over money and be forgiven for adultery or whatever. Lutheris disgusted by this. The clergy is telling people they can buy their way out of hell, luther believe only god has the power to pardon one out of hell. He believes it only increses corruption in clergy and increases sin in congregation. These indulgences push him to write his 95


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