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UT Knoxville HIST 262 - oct 8

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Hist Lect 1210/8/13Revolutions in the Atlantic WorldFOCUS Qs:1. What factors led to the American Revolution?2. Why (and how) was the French Revolution more radical than the American Revolution?3. How was the Haitan Revolution linked to both the American Revolution and the French Revolution?Enlightenment ind rev.Enlightenment age of rev in atlantic worldWith the emergence of these revolutions, you see these enlightenment ideas come tothe forefront of political life (legal equality, popular soveirgenty)Philosophes argue king responsible to ppl (John Locke true political power resided with the PEOPLE)Said a contract….if king violated that, ppl had responsibility to replace their ruler1. American RevolutionMiddle 1700s colonists content being part of brit. Emp. They were a vital and lucrative part of great brit’s trade network, spoke same language, had same culture, etc.This begins changing after Seven Years War (1756-1763) aka The French and Indian WarIt was a world war…battles all over the place.Sides? Brit and her allies vs. france and her allies (fight in north America, Europe, india, ALL OVER THE WORLD)Great brit emerges victorious….with this victory great brit now DOMINATES world trade. But this victory was a COSTLY victory. Put strain on brit treasury.The crown believed the colonies should pay their debts (from their perspective they saved the colonists from the French and their native American allies) so they believed it was only natural that the colonists pay and so they began enforcing tons of taxes. Taxes went from negligible to overwhelming. Quartering Act colonists had to quarter brit troops in their homes if need beColonists argue all this a violation of individual rights and liberties. Said no taxation without representation in brit parliament. Brit does not grant them this representation so colonists begin boycotting brit goods, attacking brit officials, and organizing protests.By 1774 they had organized the first continental congress. This serves to coordinate resistance against great brit.1775 tensions had become tight, first shot is fired and American rev underway.1776 the second continental congress declares the independence of the 13 colonies from the brit empire. Decl of ind “greatest hits” list of the enlightenment ideas…all men created equal, written by Thomas Jefferson but sounds like john locke. Declaring independence and gaining independence 2 very different thingsBrit had many advantages the colonists lacked like:Strong central governmentStrong est’d armyBest navy in the worldAllies within the colonies (numerous loyalists)BUT COLONISTS HAVE HELP AND SUPPORT OF EUROPEAN ALLIES…FRANCE! No shortage of eur. Powers that want to take great brit down a peg or 2. This proves pivotal in American victory. Am. Vict. Not possible without these European allies (france) In 1783 war officially comes to end at peace of paris there brit formally recognizes American independenceTakes a few years but US eventually sets up govt which ECHOES enlightenment ideology (US constitution drafted in 1787) checks and balances, popular sovereignty, etc2. French RevolutionInfluenced by enlightenment as wellDiffers good bit from am. Rev.  French rev more radical than am. Rev.Reason? Amount of changes French clamoring for. (am. Was political revolution…not looking to restructure society, overturn brit cultural traditions) in france they want to completely re-order society (political, social, and cultural revolution) Starts with 7 years war as wellFrance losesFaces with worse financial situationAlso French spent considerable amnt of money helping am. Rev.Their tax system unable to deal with dire financial straightsRichest ppl in france largely exempt from paying taxesWorking class pays majority share of taxes (like this way fro some time) now that economy esp poor, this working class taxed even more! But rich still get to hoard all their cashBy 1787 Louis XVI (not XIV) goes to nobility and clergy for help. Unsurprisingly they refuse to pay taxes (motivation 1. Economic self interest and 2. They want to send Louis a message…show him he’s not the only onewith political power and influence) in prior century the nobility has lost considerable influence and they want.In an effort to gain back some of this lost prestige, the nobility pressured Louis into calling Estates General Consists of:1. first estate represents about 100,000 roman catholic clergy2. second estate represents about 400,000 nobles3. the third estate represents everyone else about 24 mil common folk (farmers, working class, etc)Louis summons E.G. in 1789Each party has their own goals (incompatible) From king’s perspective: wants new taxes on nobility and clergyNobility and clergy: want to re-gain lost influence and power and avoid new taxesCommon people: want their tax burdens liftedFirst and second estate say there should be 3 votes (1 for each estate)Common ppl say this unfair & votes should be based on populationAfter week of arguing, no compromise reached and third estate secedes from E.G. They leave and go to nearby tennis courts and lable themselves ”The National Assembly” they take oath to not disband until they get what they’refighting forOn july 14, 1789: a group of these ppl storm the Bastille (a prison and armory) bc they wanted weaponsThese attackers kill the surviving members protecting the bastilleThis just 1 of many uprisings popping up nation wide in franceFear things getting out of hand”Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen” August 1789Also echo enlightenment ideas (all men equal, political power resides with people, ppl have individ rights and liberties)Over next 2 years the national assembly:“Liberty, Equality, Fraternity”Natl assembly seize church lands, declare members of clergy ordinary citizens, declare clergy take oath of loyalty to principles in this new constitutionLeft king in office but stripped most of his power which in turn goes to this legislature….france becoming a constitutional monarchy (governed by this decl)Under this, 50% of males could vote….property owning menThere were revolutionaries say this not far enough pressing for more radical changes…they really want a republic. Also outside pressure Austria and PrussiaFrench nobility reach out to other eur powers (like aust and prus) and allie themselvesSo the national assembly respond to this internal and external pressure declare war on Austria and


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