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CSU LIFE 103 - Angiosperms

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LIFE 103 1st Edition Lecture 9Outline of Last Lecture II. A Summary of Life III. Key Features of Seed Plant EvolutionI. Increased dominance of the sporophyte II. Appearance of air-borne pollen to bring gametes together III. Seeds IV. Seeds V. Gymnosperm AnatomyI. Female II. Male III. FertilizationIV. Embryo i. Fig. 30.6VI. Diversity Outline of Current LectureVII. Why so Special? VIII.Flower Anatomy I. Male II. Female III. Other parts IX. Examples X. Important Reproductive Details XI. Angiosperm Diversity I. MonocotsII. EudicotsCurrent Lecture: Angiosperm ReproductionI. Angiosperms: (containers + seed) What makes angiosperms special? II. Flowers: angiosperm structure specialized for sexual reproductionIII. Fruit: a mature ovary, and sometimes other flower parts I. Protect the seedsThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.II. Aids in seed dispersal III. Fleshy (oranges, grapes) or dry (beans, grains) IV. Local adaptation based on growing habitat V. Flowers shown on slide: Columbine, Cantaloupe flower, cactus flower, and a grass flowerOverviewI. Angiosperm life cycleII. Angiosperm diversity Flower Anatomy: supporting male function I. Anther: a sac where microspores develop into pollen II. Filament: stalk that holds up the anther III. Stamen: the anther and filament together Flower Anatomy: supporting female function I. Ovule: (from gymnosperm definition) megasporangium, megaspore + integument II. Ovary: contains one or more ovules III. Stigma: sticky surface that receives pollen IV. Style: stalk that connects stigma to ovary V. Carpel: the stigma, style, and ovary together Flower Anatomy: other parts I. Sepals: enclose flower before it opens, usually green II. Petals: brightly colored in animal-pollinated species III. Fig. 30.7, see for flower partsI. Fig. 30.8: Examples of fruits that are angiospermsI. TomatoesII. Ruby grapefruitIII. NectarineIV. MilkweedV. Hazelnuti. All are ovaries that we eat II. Fig. 30.9: Examples of seeds that are good at dispersal I. Seeds within berriesII. BarbsIII. Maple tree seed helicopters Important reproductive details, part 1 I. Each male gametophyte (within pollen) contains two haploid cells I. Generative cell: divides and forms 2 sperm (divides by mitosis) II. Tube cell: produces pollen tube II. Mitotic division of the haploid megaspore creates two notable cells I. Egg (haploid) II. Central cell: 2 nuclei from mitosis without cytokinesis Important reproductive details, part 2 I. Double fertilization: after pollination and pollen tube growth, 2 sperm enter each ovule (becomes triploid)I. One sperm fertilizes the egg II. Other sperm fertilizes the central cell II. Endosperm: triploid tissue that has grown from the central cell I. Part of the seed that supplies nutrients to the embryo when it germinates II. Makes up the majority of food sources III. Cotyledon: leaf present in the embryo Some helpful reading I. More details in “Flower Structure and Function” and “Double Fertilization” on pages 802-807II. Details help understanding, but this level of detail not on the examI. Fig. 30.10 in the text (good study resource for filling in!!) II. Clicker question: where in the angiosperm would you find the megasporangium? Answer: within an ovule, contained within a flower ovary III. Fig. 30.12: Angiosperm phylogeny (see text) Angiosperm Diversity I. Greater specialization allows plant traits to more closely match environmentII. High Angiosperm diversity means the angiosperm style of life has successfully specialized in many unique environmentsIII. Read about I. Angiosperm evolutionII. Inquiry 30.14 IV. Basal Angiosperms (100 species)I. Ambroella and water lilies and star aniseV. Magnoliids (8,000 species) I. Magnolias ExamplesI. Fig. 30.13 I. Water lily: once thought to be a “dicot”, but no longII. Southern magnolia: some magnolia flowers can become really big Monocots, >70,000 speciesII. Usually have: I. One cotyledonII. Parallel veinsIII. Vascular tissues scattered through stem IV. Roots fibrous, lack main rootV. Pollen grain with a single openingVI. Floral organs in multiples of 3 i. Bananas = example ExamplesI. Orchids, one of the most species-rich groups of plantsII. Pygmy date palm III. BarleyEudicots, >170,000 speciesI. Two cotyledonsII. Netlike veinsIII. Vascular tissues arranged in a ringIV. Roots include main taprootV. Pollen grains with 3 openingsVI. Floral organs in multiples of 4 or


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