New version page

CSU LIFE 103 - Exam 1 Study Guide

This preview shows page 1-2 out of 6 pages.

View Full Document
View Full Document

End of preview. Want to read all 6 pages?

Upload your study docs or become a GradeBuddy member to access this document.

View Full Document
Unformatted text preview:

Life 103 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 9Lecture 1 (January 21)Studying the Biology of Organisms 1. The diversity of life (patterns) 2. How plants work (mechanisms) 3. How animals work (mechanisms)4. Understanding these patterns and mechanisms is critical for being a broadly-trained biologist (Breadth and depth) -Details matter when analyzing patterns in diversity Syllabus Information: -Prof. Joe von Fischer (plants- first half) -Dr. Tanya Dewey (animals – second half) -Lecture notes are skeletal -Grades are split 75/25 between lecture and lab -3 regular exams, 1 comprehensive final -Lowest score on exam is dropped, but final is required -Must have ID for exams Career Prep: -Be willing to study new things, network, and get involved in lots of topics-Be a nerd! Lecture 2 (January 23) -Life used to be organized in bins by Carl Linnaeus, the father of taxonomy-There to avoid confusion-Process is far from done -Hierarchical structure-Kingdom-Phylum -Class-Order-Family-Genus-SpeciesBinomial Classification- scientific name of each species, genus then species, helps avoid confusionRecent Major Revisions-Before 1969: 3 Kingdoms -Plants, animals, protists-1969 to 1990: 5 kingdoms -Plants, animals, fungi, protists, monera (bacteria, etc.) -1990: 3 domains -Eukarya-Archaea (first two most closely related because of rRNA genes) -Bacteria Horizontal Gene Transfer- the movement of genes from one genome to another, complicates organizing the tree of life Endosymbiotic Theory- mitochondria and chloroplasts in Eukaryotes came from symbiotic bacteriaLecture 3 (January 26) Why do we know so little about Bacteria and Archaea? -Small-99% of all are unculturable, which is how we learn -Very diverse (can live in almost any environment) -Oxygen not needed for all, can use other compounds (oxygen metabolism) Major Nutritional Modes Mode of Nutrition Energy Source Carbon Source AutotrophPhoto-autotrophChemo-autotrophHeterotrophPhoto-heterotrophChemo-heterotrophLight Inorganic Compounds Light Organic compounds CO2CO2Organic Compounds Organic compounds What traits allow such diversity? -Small size -Rapid generation time (some 20 minutes generation time) -Endospores: durable resting stage to wait out hard times -Small, light spores are easily dispersed to new habitats -Horizontal gene transfer-Parentoffspring (vertical gene transfer) Horizontal gene transfer (in depth)- bacteria contain additional DNA on plasmids that are Bacteria- include the majority of prokaryotes that we know of -Example: pathogen that causes bubonic plague, spread through fleas, rodents, can go to humansArchaea- the extremophiles, grow in very salty, high temperatures, no oxygen necessary -Example: Methane producer that produces greenhouse gas methane, lives in wetlands and is rich in decomposing organic matter *TABLE 27.2*Lecture 4 (January 28) Where do Fungi get their Energy? -Heterotroph (“other” + “feed”), consume organic carbon-Saprophytic (“rotten” + “plant”)- digestive enzymes excreted, reabsorbed, grow into their food -Mycorrhizal (“fungus” + “plant”), relationship with plants -Parasitic (+ -), take energy from a living host -Symbiotic (+ +), lichens Anatomy -Single-celled = “yeast” , but many are multi-cellular -Chitin = strong, flexible cell wall material -Hyphae = tiny filaments with very high surface area -Mycelium = interwoven mass of hyphae (like dreadlocks)Sex -Plasmogamy (“plasma” + “join”) = when cytoplasms of two parents merge, but nuclei do not -Heterokaryonic (“different” + “nuclei”) = containing unfused nuclei within a mycelium -Karyogamy (“nuclei” + “join”) = when nuclei from parents join, result = diploid Important Groups -Zygomycetes-Bread molds -Glomeromycetes: -Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis with plant roots-“Higher Fungi” -Ascomycetes-Basidiomycetes Lecture 5 (January 30) -Protists are the evolutionary junk drawer, but the one thing they all have in common is that they’re eukaryotes-4 super groups-Excavata -“SAR” clade-Archaeplastida-Unikonta Excavata- “Excavated” groove on body, 3 monophyletic groups-Diplomonads- lack plastids, unique mitochondria, parasitic-Parabasalids- lack plastids, unique mitochondria, parasitic -Euglenozoans- mix of feeding types, all have a rod with either a spiral or crystal in their flagella,have eyespots SAR Clade- three major clades-Stramenophiles- hairy flagella, include diatoms, gold, and brown algae, photosynthetic -Alveolates- membrane sacs, include Dinoflagellates, Apicomplexans, and ciliates -Rhizarians- Cercozoans, radiolarians, forams, have pseudopodia and cytoplasmic streaming Archaeplastida- closest to modern land plants because all photosynthetic, includes red and green algae Unikonts- most like animals and fungus, have normal mitochondria, two major groups: -Amoebazoans- slime molds-OpisthokontsImportance-Symbiotic protists-Photosynthetic protistsLecture 6 (February 2) -Reproduce (ultimate goal of life), but eating, growing, and avoiding dying are also important Derived Traits of Land Plants -Alternation of generations and multicellular, dependent embryos -Walled spores produced in sporangia-Multicellular reproductive structures (gametangia) -Linear growth from root and shoot tips: Apical meristems Benefits of Haploidy I. Deleterious mutations eliminated morequickly in haploid populations Costs of Haploidy II. All deleterious mutations are “exposed” III. Higher death rate of haploidsBenefits of Diploidy I. Spare allele protects against deleterious mutationsII. Greater genetic diversity brings faster adaptation to new environments III. Crossing over during meiosis can bring beneficial alleles together (homologouspairs of chromosomes switch) Costs of DiploidyI. Double mutation rate (2 copies of each allele) II. Both beneficial and deleterious mutations are more likely III. Nutritional demands higher with greater DNA content IV. Diploid cells often largerGametophyte (“gamete-producing plant”)- HAPLOID, produces haploid gametes, produced by mitosis, fuse to form diploid zygote Sporophyte (“spore-producing plant”)-DIPLOID, produces haploid spores by meiosis, spores grow into haploid gametophytes Major groups of Land plants -Nonvascular plants-Seedless vascular plants-Gymnosperms-Angiosperms Nonvascular plants-Three phyla of Bryophytes-Liverworts, Hornworts, mosses (phylum = Bryophyta) Lecture 7 (February 4) Moss Anatomy-Antheridia (“flowery” +


View Full Document
Loading Unlocking...
Login

Join to view Exam 1 Study Guide and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or
We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Exam 1 Study Guide and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or

By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?