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PSY 556 1st Edition Lecture 9Outline of Last Lecture I. Attitudes and Attitude ChangeII. Expectancy-Value TheoryIII. Learning TheoryIV. Consistency TheoriesV. Cognitive ConsistencyOutline of Current Lecture I. PersuasionII. Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)III. Conformitya. Informational Influence & Normative InfluenceIV. ComplianceV. ObedienceCurrent LecturePersuasion, Conformity, Compliance & ObedienceI. Persuasion= The process by which outside forces influence attitude changea. Think of this as the situational component of attitude changeb. Sourcei. Authority1. BUT “sleeper effect”2. Normal Decaya. A persuasive messageloses its impact over time.b. Attitudes return to pre-messagebaseline.3. Sleeper Effecta. A persuasive message thatwas originally discountedbecause of a low-credibilitysource becomes more persuasive with timeas source is forgotten.ii. Attractivenessiii. Close to selfc. Messagei. Discrepancy (e.g., gay marriage vs. civil unions?)ii. Strength of argument (e.g., your papers)These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.iii. Repetition1. Mere exposureiv. “Peripheral” or irrelevant cues1. Providing a “reason” that’s not…2. Number of arguments3. Positive affectd. Situationi. Forewarning enables resistance1. Product placementii. Inoculationiii. Distractione. Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM), Petty &Cacioppo 1984i. Routes To Persuasion1. Central route: careful, attentive, controlled2. Peripheral route: fast, heuristic, automaticii. We will use the central route only when we are motivated and have sufficient cognitive resourcesiii. ELM Summary:1. When people are motivated (either because of involvement, importance, relevance, accountability), they:a. Use central routeb. Are less persuaded by attractiveness (and other peripheral factors)2. But this is ONLY TRUE when they have sufficient cognitive resourcesf. Targeti. Involvementii. PersonalityII. Conformity, Compliance, Persuasiona. Conformity: Tendency to change beliefs and behaviors in ways that are consistent with group standardsb. Compliance: Doing what we are asked to do even though we may not want to c. Persuasion: Willfully changing beliefs following a persuasion attemptIII. Why do we conform?a. Informational Influencei. Other people might know something we don’tii. We want to be right!b. Normative Influencei. Don’t want to stand out or be rejectedii. We want to fit in!IV. Informational Influencea. The desire to be rightb. Based on:i. How well informed we think the group isii. How confident we are in our own knowledgeiii. Example: Visiting Japanc. Leads to change in behavior and underlying attitudeV. The Autokinetic Effect(Sherif, 1936)a. Autokinetic Effect = a single point of lightseen in the dark appears to move --though it really does notb. The Autokinetic Effect: Part 1i. Without a yardstick, people base their answers on what other people sayii. Eventually a group norm is established and everyone is saying roughly the same thingiii. Later on when by themselves, people still follow group norm1. Like transmission of cultural norms?c. The Autokinetc Effect: Part 2i. Same as first set of studies, except otherperson in the room is a confederate ofthe studyii. Same thing happens – participants followresponse of the consistent peeriii. How is this informational influence…what is the information?d. KEYPOINT: Informational influence works best when the information is AMBIGUOUSVI. Normative Influencea. The desire to be likedb. Often leads to an outward change inbehavior but not necessarily a change in private opinionsi. What does cognitive dissonance theory have to say about this proposition?VII. Results from Asch Studya. Some subjects never give wrong answerb. Some subjects always give wrong answerc. THUS – Individual differences in the pressure to conformd. BUT OVERALL – Wrong answer is given 35% of the timeVIII. When do people conform?a. Group sizeb. Unanimityi. The role of the dissenterii. Irving Janis and groupthink (after midterm)c. Group commitmenti. “wannabes” on the outside wanting to be inIX. Sherif Vs. Ascha. Sherif (autokinetic)i. Ambiguous stimuliii. Calm subjectsiii. Internalization of informationiv. Informationalv. Desire to be rightb. Asch (lines)i. Clear stimuliii. Tense subjectsiii. “Compliance” with informationiv. Normativev. Desire to fit inX. Compliance: Doing what we are asked to do even though we may not want toa. Compliance is in response to a requestb. Techniquesi. Door-in-the-faceii. Foot-in-the-dooriii. Low balliv. That’s not all!v. PiqueXI. Obediencea. Obedience to Authorityi. Will people obey an explicit request, even if they disagree with that request?b. Milgram’s Classic Obedience Study (1963)i. The design1. Participants arrived at the lab, ostensibly, with another participant (confederate; 47 yr. old,pleasant-looking, somewhat overweight fellow)ii. Milgram wearing white lab coatiii. Told study was on effect of punishment on learningiv. Participants always assigned to be the teacherv. Confederate was the learner (word pair task)vi. Teacher had to give escalating shocks for incorrectresponses (start at 15 volts, increase by 15)vii. Increasing protests of learner1. 15-60: No protests2. 75-135: “Ugh!”3. 150: “That’s all, get me out of here. I told you I have heart trouble…”4. 210: “Ugh! Experimenter! Get me out of here…I won’t be in theexperiment any more.5. 285: Agonized scream6. 315: Intensely agonized scream. “I told you I refuse to answer, I amno longer a part of this experiment.”7. After 330 volts, no responses at allviii. Naïve estimates of compliance1. People (students, Psychiatrists, working people) estimated they would stopcomplying by 135 volts (strong shock)2. No one said more than 3003. When asked what other people would do estimated that 1 in 1,000 would “goall the way” (to 450 or XXX)ix. The results1. Average shock was 360 volts2. 95% went past complaints of pain3. 80% went past 150 (when learner mentions heart problems)4. 65% went “all the


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