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UO PSY 556 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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PSY 446/556 1st EditionMidterm # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 9Automaticity and Control (Lecture 2)- Reflective vs. reflexive consciousnesso Reflective consciousness = consciousness of something, thought, controlled, aboutness (only humans have this kind)o Reflexive consciousness = consciousness as experience, perception, automatic, seems like reality (all animals have this kind)- (Fallible) logic of social judgmentso We think we know ourselves best, but we’re not great at knowing our own reasons behind our attitudes or behaviors or trying to introspect on our own thoughts. (Introspective Error) - Introspection: Process whereby people look inward and examine their own thoughts, feelings, and motives- Rationalization: In order to reduce dissonance we rationalize our actions - Limitations of self-regulation and free will o Can be disconnect between how much control we have over our actions. Both ways, thinking we have more control than we, or thinking that we have less control than we do.- Thought suppression and ironic processes o Thought-suppression: type of self-control by pushing thoughts out of mind whichtends to backfire- Counterfactual thinking (can lead to rumination) o Mentally changing some aspect of the way of imagining what might have been.- Automaticity: situational influences and priming - Priming-process by which recent experiences increase accessibility of a schema, trait, or concept. - Subjective construal: Interpretation of situation, how people interpret the world around them.- Naïve realism: The conviction that we perceive things as they really are.- The Amadou Diallo Case o Implicit prejudices, “shooter bias” Participants told to press a button labeled “shoot” if a man in a picture had a gun and “don’t shoot” if he did not. Found that participants were more likely to pull the trigger when people in the pictures were black regardless of having a gun or not...Methods (Lecture 4)- Correlational Methodo Technique whereby two or more variables are systematically measured and the relationship between them (i.e. how much one can be predicted from the other) is assessed.- Experimentso type of research in which the researcher randomly assigns people to two or moreconditions, varies the treatment in each condition, and measures the outcomes. Allows for inference of causation- Operationalization: Giving specific definitions to the things you will manipulate or measure- Randomization: Includes random assignment (in sharing the old participants have an equal chance of taking part in any condition of an experiment) and random selection (a way of ensuring that a sample of people is representative of a population by giving everyone in the population equal chance of being selected). - Interaction (moderation): Are there “boundary conditions” on the effect? When does it hold?- Independent and dependent variables o IV-manipulated DV-measured- Validity (internal and external)o Internal-3rd variable problemo External- generalizability. Self (Lecture 6)- James’ “I” vs “me” o “Me” self as known,o “I” self as knower, or active agent, which experiences, has preferences, emotionso The “me” is what we extract from the “I” when the “I” reflects on its just past actions- Mead’s “reflected appraisals”o The reflection of the self’s attributes as seen from the perspective of others. o Self-knowledge not gained from introspectiono Most basic self-awareness is social in nature (we are never alone)- Historical perspectives on self o Baumeister-self is a modern invention. o Historical view of self predetermined-lack of mobility, lack of choices, life trajectory set.- Independent vs. interdependent o Inside vs. outside perspectives of self. Independent-A view of self/model of the self in which identity is thought to come from inner attributes that reflect a unique essence of the individual and that remain stable across situations and across the lifespan. Interdependent-view of self/model of self in which individuals are perceived not as separate and distinct entities but as participants in a larger social unit where identity is contingent upon key relationships with in-group members.- Intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivation o Intrinsic motivation is the desire to do something because you enjoy it, not because of an external rewardo Extrinsic motivation is the desire to do something because of an external rewardSelf-perception - Objective Self-Awareness o When we focus our attention on ourselves, we evaluate and compare our currentbehavior to our internal standards and values (generalized other). We become self-conscious as objective evaluators of ourselves. Aversive-reminds us of how we should be.- Generalized Other o like Freud’s superego, internalized simulation of what your mother or others would say if they knew what you were thinking/feeling. - Effects of self-awareness on behavioro Options: change self-concept, or escape self-awareness somehowo Loss of self: deindividuation  loss of identity and sense of responsibility, self-escape changing the nature of thought (i.e. drugs, food) deflective processing, diminished reflection, and flow in control without exerting control, complete immersion, no self evaluation, engaged, automaticities match behavioral demands. (i.e. playing music).- Misattribution of arousalo When people make mistaken inferences about what is causing them to feel the way they do.Self-esteem- Positive illusionso unrealistic, favorable attitude toward self type of self-deception/self-enhancement that helps maintain self-esteem. Includes inflated assessment of one’s own abilities, unrealistic optimism, and the illusion of control. - Self-serving biaseso tendency to attribute positive events to one’s character and negative events to external factors. - Self-esteem in response to threat / failureo We reinterpret events to be in our favor in order to preserve our self-esteem.- Pros and cons of positive self-esteem o Pros-protects us from thoughts about our own mortality, perseverance in tough times. Optimism and confidence o Cons- narcissism, culturally too much self focus, less empathy - Self-handicapping o People create obstacles and excuses for themselves so that if they do poorly on atask, they can avoid blaming themselves.Social comparison- Social comparison theory o The idea that we learn about our own abilities and attitudes by comparing ourselves to other people. - Self-enhancement vs.


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