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CSU IE 116 - Domestication

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IE 116 1st Edition Lecture 5Outline of Last Lecture Origins of Agriculture and spreading- 8 theories of how Ag originatedo Discovery, Crowding, (co)Evolution, Extension, Alcohol, Religion, No One Theory, and Chance along with food stress- 3 theories of how Ag spreado Demographics, Disease resistance, and Cultural and Technological developments- Thanks to humans, only best is chosenOutline of Current Lecture I. Domesticationa. Definition Anthropogenic EvolutionII. Types of Domesticationa. Typesb. How Domestication occursIII. Selection and Diversitya. Definitions and UnderstandingsCurrent LectureI. Domesticationa. Definitions- Progenitors are the biological differences between modern crops and their wild ancestorspecies. - Domestication is an anthropogenic evolution of a wild species to one that cannot survive without human assistance. Anthropogenic: - Corn – Originally small, shatterable, and bushy for survival.- Now – Moved to large seeds, fixed, stalks, suited for mechanized agriculture. Evolution: - A change in trait frequency over time.II. Types of Domesticationa. Types- Primary: domesticated in the same area it grows naturally. (Wheat, Barley, Peas, Maize)- Secondary: Transported UNINTENTIONALLY, then domesticated. (Rye, oats)- Trans-domestication: INTENTIONALLY transported and domesticated. (Tomatoes)b. How domestication occurs- Utilized: Little pressure or competition, grows naturally with no/little help. (Blueberries)- Cultivated: Naturally poisonous, cultivated to be edible. (Almonds)- Semi-domesticated: nutritionally complete, little help, chosen to be grown. (Quinoa) - Fully domesticated: different than original, can’t survive without humans. (Corn)III. Selection and Diversitya. Definitions and Understandings- Diversityo Needs multiple versions of traits1. Mutations -> change certain traits2. Recombination -> Mixed parental traits3. Migration -> Introduces new traits into a population- Selectiono Puts pressure and acts on diversity1. Humans select for specific traits2. May result in loss of diversity- Diversity is a prerequisite for evolution. With very few exceptions, diversity exists in all species.o Selection changes levels of diversity. Bottle-necks and results in loss of population Less diversity and makes it harder to select for a trait in an emergency.- For example: The banana. One kind left. No seeds. Dying out.- We could quite possible lose bananas.IMPORTANT Domestication Syndrome / Patternso The traits that were selected for domestication are considered the “domestication syndrome” Example: 1 Pick the seeds from largest flower head, or 2 pick seeds from the largest fruit, or 3 the prettiest


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