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CSU IE 116 - Crops Diversity

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IE 116 1st Edition Lecture 6Outline of Last Lecture I. Domestication is an anthropogenic evolution of a wild species to one that cannot survivewithout human assistance.II. Types of Domestication: Primary (Intentional), Secondary (Unintentional), and Trans (intentional and moved)III. Selection by humans results in loss of natural diversity.Outline of Current LectureI. Crops Diversitya. Classical Breedingi. Peopleii. CriticismsII. Germplasm Conservationa. Transgenic Cropsi. Methodsii. TraitsIII. Preserving Genetic DiversityCurrent LectureI. Crops Diversity- The US has more arable land for industry and housing. o About 2.3 Million Acres- Now under 4 million acreso 3000 acres are lost each daya. Classical breeding- The international selection and crossing of plant varieties to produce plants with desirable plants.i. People- Gregor Mendel (1985)o Labeled/wrote down genetic traitso Shape, color, flower color, positiono Yellow, white, Green, Wrinkled, etc.- Sir Ronald Fishero Created modern statisticso Labeled gene dominance through breeding- Norman Borlaug (1914 – 2009)o Father of the “Green Revolution”o Wanted to help Mexican food productiono Studied leaf rust, a disease on wheat Found resistant gene, bread them, the poured in nitrogen and crossed with Japanese version to be resistant, short, large, and high yield. 6 fold increase. Mexico is now a wheat exportero Done with other plants in other areas now. o Labeled the Green Revolution Won the Nobel Peace prizeii. Criticisms- New varieties were so popular that they replaced most locally adapted landraces. Landrace = Traditional varieties of crop plants thato are locally adapted to area they are grown (Climate, pests, etc)o Have been produced unintentionally and intentionally selected- Fertilizer and pesticides are expensive. Not all farmers have access to these crops.- Also can cause unintended environmental contaminationII. Germplasm Conservationa. Transgenic Crops- Are where we have inserted the genes from other species into the crop to produce traits that wewant- Messing with genes using foreign/engineered genes.- Cannot be done between speciesi. Methods- Plasmid Method: Inert small amount of DNA into cell,- Vector method: Don’t really talk about- Biolistic method: “Gene Gun” inject gold pellets of DNA into cells with a promotor.o Promotor can also turn on other less attractive/poisonous genes.ii. Traits- Insect resistance (Bt, only toxic to insects)- Disease resistance- Delayed ripening- Herbicide resistanceIII. Preserving Genetic Diversity- Nicolai Vavilov (1887 – 1943)o Seed Banko Visit places of origins and collect as many varieties as possible to preserveo 1924 Stalin took over and tried to take seeds for food control, but they barricaded and protected the vault.o Ironically, Vavilov starved to death in a Siberian prison after a dispute with


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