IUB PSY-P 101 - pysch terms test 1 (6 pages)

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pysch terms test 1



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pysch terms test 1

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Pages:
6
School:
Indiana University, Bloomington
Course:
Psy-P 101 - Introductory psychology
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01 27 2013 hindsight bias the tendency to believe after learning an outcome that one would have foreseen it critical thinking thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions rather it examines assumptions discerns hidden values evaluates evidence and assesses conclusions theory an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behavior or events hypothesis a testable prediction often implied by a theory operational definition a statement of the procedures used to define research variables replication repeating the essence of a research study usually with different participants in different situations to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances case study an observation technique in which one person is studied depth in the hope of revealing universal principles naturalistic observation observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation survey a technique for ascertaining the self reported attitudes of behavior of a particular group usually by questioning a representative random sample of the group population all the cases in a group being studied from which samples may be drawn random sample a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion correlation a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together and thus of how well either factor predicts is the other correlation coefficient a statistical index of the relationship between two things scatterplot a graphed cluster of dots each of which represents the values of two variables experiment a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors experimental group in an experiment the group that is exposed to the treatment control group the group that is not exposed to the treatment random assignment assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups double blind procedure an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo placebo effect experimental results caused by expectations alone any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition which the recipient assumes is an active agent independent variable the experimental factor that is manipulated the variable whose effect is being studied confounding variable a factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment dependent variable the outcome factor the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable mode the most frequently occurring number mean average of a distribution obtained by adding the scores and then dividing them by the total number median the middle score in a distribution range difference between high and lowest scores in a distribution standard deviation a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score normal curve a symmetrical bell shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data most scores fall near the mean or average and fewer and fewer near the extremes statistical significance a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance culture the enduring behaviors ideas attitudes values and tradition shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next informed consent an ethical principle that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate debriefing the post experimental explanation of a study including its purpose and any deceptions to its participants biological perspective concerned with the links between biology and behavior includes psychologists working in neuroscience behavior genetics and evolutionary psychology neuron a nerve cell the basic building block of the nervous system dendrites a neuron s bushy branching extensions that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body axon the neuron extension that passes messages through its branches to other neurons or to muscles or glands myelin sheath a fatty tissue layer segmentally encasing the axons of some neurons enables vastly greater transmission speed as neural impulses hop from one mode to the next action potential a neural impulse a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon threshold the level of required to trigger a neural impulse synapse the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron neurotransmitters chemical messages that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons when released by the sending neuron neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse reuptake a neurotransmitter s reabsorption by the sending neuron endorphins natural opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure 01 27 2013 01 27 2013


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