IUB PSY-P 101 - psych notes (30 pages)

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psych notes



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psych notes

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Pages:
30
School:
Indiana University, Bloomington
Course:
Psy-P 101 - Introductory psychology
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P101 01 07 2013 James C Craig craig indiana edu 812 855 3926 Office Psych 356 Monday 1 30 2 30 Tuesday 10 to 11 Psychology the scientific study of behavior and cognitive processes What we will cover 1 Experimental Methodology How do we study behavior scientifically Without careful scientific study we are left with opinions guesses Some are correct some are incorrect 2 Neuroscience left hand right side right hand left side 95 of people s left side is language split brain 3 Sensation and Perception what we see after image 4 Nature Nurture nearly all behavior is the result of the interaction between our genes and our environment 5 Cognitive Processes Memory Thinking Language sleep dark bed night sleep wasn t on the original list association of terms 6 Consciousness motivation and emotion 8 motivation and emotion myers 10th edition text book six exams on course 5 one hour exams and a final lowest exam score is dropped automatically final is cumulative extra credit each of the five sections of the course an exercise will be posted on oncourse grades are 500 possible points 30 extra credit point possible P101 1 9 01 07 2013 Psychology A long past a short history Old questions new ways to answer Philosophers certainly as early as the Greek philosophers have been asking and trying to answer many of the questions that experimental psychology deals with What is the nature of mind How do we know about the world Are we born with innate and correct ideas about the world Are human beings basically good or evil A brief history of 3 areas I Sensation perception and cognitive psychology Greek philosophers How do we know about the world o It must be through our senses how we know what is out there What happens if our senses are in error o Plato s cave analogy Aristotle s view of vision to Wundt 1879 and the beginning of exp psych o Wundt studied the senses How vision and hearing worked His approach was called structuralism The structuralists and introspection II Motivation Galen second century physician and philosopher o the balance among the 4 humors determined your personality motivation Freud o who popularized the unconscious III Learning Hippocrates and the goat nature nurture innate vs learned o Drinks goat melt don t have to teach a baby goat to like goats milk they are born that way Darwin the use of animals in learning exps o Humans are on a continuum with other animals opened up a field of learning Thorndike the puzzle box o Cats learning o Measured by how fast the cats get out of the box Law of effect o Action followed by a good effect seems to get stamped in Indiana University in the history of psychology Bryan psychologist pres of the university Bryan Hall learning telegraphy and the plateau effect Many of the questions that psychologists try to answer have their roots in philosophy Close ties to biology sociology anthropology medicine physics physiology and computer science Obstacles to a science of behavior 1 Behavior is unpredictable capricious Determinism vs indeterminism determinism vs free will 2 Psychological knowledge is probabilistic a Person who phenomenon b People have trouble understanding probabilistic information rarely do 100 of people respond in the same way 3 Folk wisdom common sense we know that already Hindsight bias Out of sight out of mind absence makes the heart grow fonder Didn t think the basketball game would be that close your friend says after the game he knew what would happen How do you overcome hindsight bias o Tell them the story happened the opposite 4 Essentialism argue about the meaning of words What is gravity intelligence o Physics force that we determined and measure mathematically operational definitions very important o the procedures used to define a research variable o operational definition of intelligence test is the score o happiness the number of times a subject smiles o aggression the number of times the 8 year old subjects threatened or stuck another person o pain frowny to smiley face 5 Psych findings may be contrary to our beliefs blowing off steam reduces anger in what way are psychological results considered probabilistic Rarely do 100 of people respond in the same way Psychological findings are often probabilistic Children whose parents attended college are more likely to attend college For those who don t go to college try to find out why If you are lost in the woods how do you find north Suppose you found 10 trees with moss pointing in the right direction and one in a different direction Operational definition Has two qualities for a good operational definition How is it measured Specified well enough that someone could carry out those operations by reading what you did Does it make sense Does it seem to measure what we think the quantity is Week 2 01 07 2013 1 14 Scientific Method Absence makes the heart grow fonder I Naturalistic observation Going out and trying to observe the environment Have to observe what happens cant infer cause and effect II Case study Froyd work based on case studies Cannot rely completely on case studies May lead you down a path III Surveys Measure what IV Correlational research A You cannot infer causality from correlational research There is a positive correlation between the number of tires produced in Akron and the number of nylons produced in Great Britain One event is not causing the other Correlational does not prove causality Said to be correlational between ice cream eaten each year and number of drownings When you see a correlational you want to ask yourself if there is a third factor that relates the two B Look for an underlying cause of two things that are highly correlated Numerically correlations range from 1 a perfect positive correlation to 0 no correlation to 1 a perfect negative correlation Need to know what a correlational is and how it varies numerically From 1 to 1 Strong correlations are high absolute numbers negative and positive are equally strong Number of healthy players on a football team and number of wins o Number of healthy players go up number of wins go up Number of healthy players and number of losses Strength of the correlational is exactly the same Note In graphing correlational data it makes no difference which variable is plotted on X axis or on the Y axis V Experimental method Big advantage can infer causality Terms independent and dependent variables experimental control groups operational definitions Facilitated communication Watched videos with facilitators and


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