IUB PSY-P 101 - exam 4 (13 pages)

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exam 4



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exam 4

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Pages:
13
School:
Indiana University, Bloomington
Course:
Psy-P 101 - Introductory psychology
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03 25 2013 Section 4 Cognitive Processes higher more complicated mental processes Memory Chapter 8 Thinking and Language Ch 9 We now know a good deal about the behavioral and physiological aspects of memory This is a topic that has considerable applied interest Overview I A model of memory sensory short term and long term memory II Types of memories Figure 8 14 Page 313 Where did I ride my bike on Tuesday episodic What is a bicycle semantic How do I ride a bicycle skills III Retrieval and storage IV How do we forget V Brain mechanisms of memory Special topics Improving memory eye witness testimony A model of memory Shiffrin IU and Atkinson What is a scientific model What is a model airplane Something works like or as if it were the real thing but not necessarily in every respect By memory we mean that something is stored beyond the time that it is physically present Is memory useful for survival Three stages sensory short term long term I Sensory memory A brief and fading storage How much gets stored A lot Visual memory iconic auditory memory echoic Sperling experiment demonstrates how much how long iconic memory Sensory memory stores much much more than we can ever process remember or should try to remember The role of attention What s important to remember II Short term working memory Peterson and Peterson IU A Encoding B Storage 1 limited capacity magic number 7 2 demo 2 chunking how to overcome limited capacity demo 3 forgetting fading displacement C Importance of rehearsal 1 Maintenance rehearsal 2 Elaborative rehearsal involves long term memory early demo Working memory short term memory Two things How much can it hold how long can it hold it Sensory memory holds a lot for a very brief period of time Working memory about 5 to 9 items Key word is items What constitutes an item one letter one word one phrase one sentence CHUNKING How long without rehearsal that is without actively trying to remember it Peterson and Peterson experiment IU 03 25 2013 Sensory memory capacity large storage time short less than a second ethic several seconds working memory capacity limited storage time 20 to 30 seconds holds a lot for a very brief period of time magic number 7 plus or minus 2 o about 5 to 9 items can be held in working memory how long can you hang onto things without rehearsal o Peterson and Peterson experiment IU o Maintenance rehearsal over and over again o Elaborative rehearsal adding meaning to things o Chunking things together Chunks come from long term memory Cant chunk words in a foreign language A enconding B storage Limited capacity magic 7 2 Chunking how to overcome limited capacity Forgetting fading displacement Life without memory Moment to moment o Feels like he is awakening fresh the whole time long term memory capacity unlimited storage time long iconic memory a fleeting photographic memory o how many of the letters can you get o sperling s iconic memory experiment flash it on flash it off told them what row to look at 1 20 of second recalled about still something there after visual image goes off 3 27 long term memory what we usually think of when we talk about memory stages o encoding o storage similar meanings stored together o retrieval I know it I just cant say it Storage Two kinds of memory o Declarative the kind we can talk about Episodic think episodes events Semantic meaning definitions facts o Implicit memories How to do something procedural and classically conditioned responses Retrieval o The importance of retrieval cues o How could test the important of retrieval experimentally Tulving s experiment 03 25 2013 Retrieval Tulving s experiment on retrieval Uppercase rhyming and fill in the sentence in class activity Kelly Michael s Case Children s memory vivid detail can they be believed Questioned repeatedly How to take this into the lab and do an ethical study False memory of the children Stephen Ceci points out he couldn t do an ethical experiment with children like how they were treated by the police and investigators Memory Brain mechanisms I Explicit memories Fig 8 14 such as facts and personal events Two important structures A Hippocampus There is one hippocampus in the left hemisphere and one in the right hemisphere It appears that verbal material is processed by the hippocampus in one hemisphere and spatial information by the hippocampus in the other hemispheres Left hippocampus processes Right hippocampus processes B Frontal cortex takes time to consolidate information Sleep may play a role II Implicit memories classical conditioning and procedures riding a bicycle A Cerebellum large structure at the base of the brain involved in movement and in classical conditioning B Basal ganglia a series of interconnected brain areas deep in the cerebral cortex Procedural memories habits III Emotional memories the amygdala Ramachandran video Adding emotional content to a situation increases the likelihood that it will be remembered Increased activity in the amygdala III How could you find out what role these brain structures play What techniques would you use What kind of evidence IV Memory at the level of the synapse How is something like your name stored in the brain What has to happen physically to retain a memory Long term potentiation increased facilitation in synaptic transmission across a synapse Fire together Wire together Recognition this measure is like a multiple choice exam Recall like a fill in the blank exam Relearning how long how many trials does it take for someone to relearn a task as compared to learning the task for the first time Measured by a savings score Which measure is most sensitive that is if you wanted to show your psychology instructor that you really had learned something about classical conditioning which measure would you pick RELEARNING In the real world what measure is most often used RELEARNING When you apply for job which measure is likely to be used in the job interview RECALL If when you get the job which measure RELEARNING Interference One of the causes of forgetting o Get a new phone and new number have trouble remembering the new number because you keep recalling your old cell phone number o Learn A learn B Try to recall B but A interferes with it Prior learning A interferes with new learning B proactive interference Learn a learn b try to recall A G reconstructing memory Memory is not like a video recorder we will in details we confused what we have seen with what we have been told o Eye witness testimony Finite


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