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CELLULAR RESPIRATION A oxidation breaksdownnutrients duringcellularrespiration Lossof elections OIL RIG C H isreplacedby C O C Hbonds arehigh in energy Ex High It Fete I ee I f He E H Tg on Mostoxidizedformof carbonhas LEASTH s and MOST O s Energy givenoffby oxidation can beused inotherprocesses Electron carriers like NAD andFADHt carryelectronsandH s forATPproduction ADP P s ATP Oxidationis analogous to catabolism breakdownoflargemolecules BReduction reforms C H bonds on Gain of electrons OIL RI C O is replaced by C H Ex o c o He s e J the s i y o if the g H E H Mostreducedform ofcarbon has MOSTH s adLEASTO s Reduction isanalogousto anabolism synthesisoflargemolecules C Endergonicus Exergonic Processes Exergonic Endergonic Spontaneous reaction 0620 Productsare low inenergythanreactants Energyisreleased Nonspontaneousreaction 0670 Productsarehigherinenergythanreactants Energyisadded Wordsto associate Oxidation e s catabolism e s Exergonic Reduction e 9 Anabolism e s Endergonic D Overall CellularRespiration Reaction 40 t 602 W 9 6102 64 0 736ATP Wordform Glucoseis oxidized usingOztoformCO2 themostoxidized formof carbon Energyfrom oxidationdrivesATPformation CellularRespiration is oxidative catabolic exergonic Cytoplasm Intermembranespace Funen b are Outermembrane E Mitochondria Siteof ATPproduction Mitochondrial matrix Four MainSteps of cellularRespiration 1 Glycolysis Oxidation of Glucose Location Cytoplasm Reactant Glucose Products 2 netATP 2NADH 2 pyruvates 2tho Criticalsteps 1 Energy investmentstage Z ATPused 2 Energypayoffstage 4ATPformed t 2NASH 2pyruvates 2tho NADt is reduced intoNADH OrRequirement Anerobic no Canbeperformedby prokaryotesandeukaryotes 2 PyruvateDecarboxylation Location MitochondrialMatrix Reactants 2pyruvates 2CoenzymeA Products 2 AcetylCoA 2 NADH 2 CO Criticalsteps Pyruvate t CoApyruvatedecarboxylasecomplexPDC AcetylCoA t NADH t coz NAD is reducedintoNADH O requirement Aerobicyes 2 9 1 Canbeperformedby eukaryotesonly 3 CitricAcidCycle TCACycle Location Mitochondrialmatrix Reactants 2AcetylCortOxaloacetate Products CeNADHIFADHz 4CO2 2 GTP forboth cycles Criticalsteps this is acyclethatoccurs TWICE citrate Eachcycleproduces 3NADH IFADHs 2002 IGTP NAD is reducedintoNADH FADH is reducedintoFADH O requirement Aerobic yes Canbeperformedby eukaryotesonly 4 Electron Transport ChainLET4 Oxidative phosphorylation Location Innermembrane t intermembrane space t mitochondrialmatrix Reactants NADHFADH Celectronsandprotonsareremoved O Products 32 34ATP H2O Criticalsteps NADH is oxidizedintoNAD FADH is oxidizedinto FAOHt 17Electrons fromNADHandFASH travelthrough carriercomplexes 2 Protons fromthe mitochondrial matrix arepumped AGAINST theirconcentration gradient to the intermembranespace active transport ThepHofthe intermembranespaceis LOW 3a Protons n intermembranespace flow back to the mitochondrial matrix throughATPsynthase 36 Or isthefinalelection acceptor that combines with protonsto form thebyproduct water 4 The mechanicalenergy fromthe flow ofprotons protonmotiveforce allows ATPsynthaseto convert ADPto ATP in aprocesscalledchemosmosis Orrequirement Aerobicyes Canbeperformedby eukaryotesonly I Energy Molecules Energy Carriesper Glucose Glycolysis Pyrgytation Citified TOTAL 2 Pyruvate Input ATP NADH Ige Z 2 FADIL O CO O 2Acetyl CoA 2 6 2 4 4 10 2 6 O 2 O 2 ATP Produced per 1 Glucose Glycolysis Pyrgygotation Citified Oxidative ATP Z O Z Phosphorylation Total 32 34 36 38 G Fermentation When There s No Oxygen Fermentation inGeneral a Anaerobicprocessto make ATP OxidizesNADHfromglycolysisbackintoNADtbyremoving electionsandhydrogens Localized in cytoplasm Alcoholicfermentation LacticAa Location cytoplasm Reactants pyruvateNADH ethanol CO2 NAD mm mm a Location Cytoplasm si Reactants pyruvateNADH Products Lacticacid NADt j maT

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UAB BY 124 - Cellular Respiration BLA 2

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