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UAB BY 124 - Kingdom Fungi

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BY 124 1st Edition Lecture 8 Outline of Last Lecture Chapter 39I. Plant Movement (cont.)II. Photoperiodic Control of Flowering III. How does the plant know about photoperiods?IV. Red vs. Far Red LightV. Plant “immune”/Regulation SystemVI. Symbiotic Relationship between Parasitoid Wasps and PlantsChapter 31I. Kingdom FungiII. Nutrition Mode of FungiIII. Structural Organization of FungiIV. Growth and Reproduction of FungiV. Historical Aspect of Fungi (Figure 31.8)VI. Chyrtridiomycota VII. ZygomycetesVIII. GlomeromycetesIX. Ascomycetes Outline of Current Lecture Chapter 31VII. BasidiomycetesVIII. Deuteromycetes Chapter 32I. Kingdom AnimaliaII. Early Embryonic Development in Animals III. Choanoflagellates are closely related to animalsIV. Cambrian ExplosionV. Tree of Life VI. SymmetryVII. Body Cavities and Germ LayersVIII. Protostome vs Deuterostome DevelopmentThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.Chapter 33I. Kingdom PoriferaCurrent LectureChapter 31 (cont.):I. Basidiomycetesa. Ex. Puff ballsb. Life Cycle (Figure 31.19)i. Plasmogamy of two different cell typesii. Karyogamyiii. Be sure to review ALL fungal life cycles for testiv. Similar to other life cyclesc. Mushroom that you actually see is the fruiting bodyII. Deuteromycotaa. Not listed as a real phylumb. “imperfect fungus”c. No one has really studied the life cycles of thesei. When they are studied, the ones that are studied are often grouped under Phylum AscomycotaChapter 32: An Overview of Animal DiversityI. Kingdom Animaliaa. Invertebrates vs vertebratesb. Characteristics i. Eukaryoticii. Heterotrophic – must take in preformed food1. Digestive, not absorptivea. Ingest and then digest food and then sends it out to be used by the bodyb. waste from digestion must be sent out iii. Store carbohydrates in glycogeniv. No cell wallsv. Need oxygen to come in and carbon dioxide to leavevi. More advanced animals have nerves and musclesII. Early Embryonic Development in Animals (Figure 32.2)a. (flagellated) sperm merges with egg to form zygoteb. Cleavage of cells (no bigger than zygote) forms blastula (inside is called blastocoel)c. Gastrulation then occurs by the folding in of the embryoi. Forms germ layers1. Usually has 2 layers: endoderm and ectoderma. Sometimes has a 3rd layer called mesodermIII. Choanoflagellates are closely related to animals (Figure 32.3)a. Good prediction/representation of what 1st eukaryotes may have looked likeIV. Cambrian Explosiona. why there was an increase in diversity/ why they survivedi. increase in preyii. Hox genesiii. Increase of oxygen and cellular respirationV. Tree of Life (Figure 32.10)a. Parazoa – “sponges”i. Different from all other animals because they do not form tissues b. Rest of animals are called EumetazoaVI. Symmetry (Figure 32.7)a. Sponges ≠ symmetricb. Radial symmetry – can cut in any direction down the middle and it will be symmetric no matter what (think of a pie)i. This are usually sessile animals meaning they won’t move muchc. Bilateral symmetry – can only cut in one direction down the middle in order to besymmetric (think of a shovel)i. These animals are more mobileii. Distinct head regioniii. Have more sensory organs (antennae, eyes, etc.)VII. Body Cavities and Germ Layers (Figure 32.8)i. Some only have 2 layers → diploblastic 1. Endo- and ectodermii. Some have three layers → triploblastic1. Endo-, meso-, and ectoderma. Coelomate a. Coelom = body cavityi. Completely surrounded by mesodermb. Pseudocoelomatesa. “space” between mesoderm and endodermc. Acoelomates a. No coelom/ cavityi. No space between gut and outside wallVIII. Protostome vs Deuterostome Development (Figure 32.9)a.Protostome DeuterostomeCleavage Spiral and determinate Radial and indeterminate Coelom formation Parts of the mesoderm Forms as outpockets ofwill split off and begin tothe form the coelom independent of the rest of the mesodermarchenteron of the mesodermFate of blastopore(Mouth vs. Anus)Mouth forms first (blastopore = mouth)Mouth forms second (blastopore = anus)b. Determinate vs indeterminate growth describes the fate of the cell early oni. Determinate – if you take the cells apart then only one off the cells will form a zygoteii. Indeterminate – If you take the cells apart then, potentially, all the cells could form a zygoteiii. **at this point there are no germ layers → need gastrulation stillChapter 33: An Introduction to InvertebratesI. Kingdom Porifera – “to bear pores”a. Sponges → all are aquaticb. Have a “sac” structurec. No radial symmetryd. Used to be thought of as plantse. Multicellular like all animals but do not form tissuesf. Do not gastrulate like other animalsi. Have epidermisg. Choanocytes (“collar cells”) living inside (Figure 33.4)h. Osculum = openingi. Brings water into spores, traps food in flagella, digest inside choanocyte and thenpasses it over to amoebocyte → INTRAcellular digestioni. No circulatory systemii. No digestive systemj. “filter” or suspension feederk. Classified by “spicules”i. Calcium carbonate, silica, collagen-like proteinl. No nervous systemm. Not extinct due to the fact that they release toxins when damaged or


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