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UAB BY 124 - Kingdom Porifera

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BY 124 1st Edition Lecture 9Outline of Last Lecture Chapter 31I. BasidiomycetesII. Deuteromycetes Chapter 32I. Kingdom AnimaliaII. Early Embryonic Development in Animals III. Choanoflagellates are closely related to animalsIV. Cambrian ExplosionV. Tree of Life VI. SymmetryVII. Body Cavities and Germ LayersVIII. Protostome vs Deuterostome DevelopmentChapter 33I. Kingdom PoriferaOutline of Current Lecture Chapter 33I. Kingdom PoriferaII. Phylum Cnidaria III. Phylum CtenopheraIV. Acoelomatesa. Phylum PlatyhelminthesV. Pseudoacoelomatesa. Phylum Rotiferab. Phylum NematodaVI. Coelomatesa. Phylum NemerteaCurrent LectureChapter 33 (cont.):These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.I. Kingdom Porifera – “to bear pores”a. Sponges → all are aquaticb. Have a “sac” structurec. No radial symmetryd. Used to be thought of as plantse. Multicellular like all animals but do not form tissuesf. Do not gastrulate like other animalsi. Have epidermisg. Choanocytes (“collar cells”) living inside (Figure 33.4)h. Osculum = openingi. Brings water into spores, traps food in flagella, digest inside choanocyte and thenpasses it over to amoebocyte → INTRAcellular digestioni. No circulatory systemii. No digestive systemj. “filter” or suspension feederk. Classified by “spicules”i. Calcium carbonate, silica, collagen-like proteinl. No nervous systemm. Not extinct due to the fact that they release toxins when damaged or eaten\n. Reproduce asexually through “budding”o. Usually sponges are hermaphroditesi. Make sperm AND eggs in same creaturep. When water is taken in for food (as stated above), sperm comes in as well (spermis released into the surrounding water of sponges) and the sperm can then fertilize the egg that is retained within the spongeII. Phylum Cnidaria (Figure 33.5)a. Alternation in life cycles between two different formsi. Alternate between polyp and medusa1. Can have a dominant formb. Radial symmetry therefore won’t really move muchi. Polyp doesn’t move much1. Mouth is “up”ii. Medusa moves more than polyp 1. Mouth is “down”c. Have gastrovascular (GV) cavityi. Where it digests thingsii. Secretes GV enzymes1. EXTRAcellular digestiona. Slows for the consumption of larger things d. Structure (Figure 33.6)i. Cnidocytes (fill tentacles)1. When touched, sends signals and then releases threads into/in direction of threate. Hydrostatic skeletonf. Classes of Cnidaria(Figure 33.7)i. Class Hydrozoa (Ex. Obelia)1. Mostly marine but some are freshwater2. Polyp stage is often colonial3. Life Cycle of Obelia (Figure 33.8)a. Bunch of polyps (diploid) (2 types – feeding and reproductive)b. Medusa bud buds off, finds another medusa to “mate” with to create diversity. This produces a zygote. The zygote grows into a larva which will form a polyp. The polyp will settle somewhere and will develop a colony at which point the process starts all over again.ii. Class Scyphozoa1. All marine2. Polyp stage is reduced/absent3. Free-swimming4. Medusa can get up to 2m bigiii. Class Cubozoa (Ex. Box jellies, sea wasps)1. All marine2. Box-shaped medusa3. Potent venom4. Complex eyesiv. Class Anthozoa (Ex. Sea anemones, corals)1. All marine2. Medusa stage is completely absent3. Most sessile4. Many colonial5. Sometimes forms symbiotic relationship with algae6. Maintain diversity by sperm and eggIII. Phylum Ctenophera (“comb jelly”)a. Fluorescent/luminescentb. Can’t stingc. Tentacles have sticky surface to trap preyd. Better digestive systeme. Better control of movementIV. Acoelomates a. Phylum Platyhelminthes (platy- flat; -helminthes – worm-like)i. Have a branched GV cavityii. Intracellular and extracellular digestion1. Will begin to digest themselves if there is not enough foodiii. No circulatory or respiratory system1. Explains why they are flat and not very broad → need to use diffusion and diffusion is ineffective across long distances iv. 3 germ layersv. Excretion via flame cells in protonephridiavi. Only one opening for food and wastevii. Have nerve cords and ganglia1. Ganglia do not serve as a brain but more like a processing unit that is able to sense light with “eyespots” 2. Use ganglia to facilitate communication between sides of bodyviii. Bright colors serve as warning signs for other animalsix. Bilateral symmetryb. Classes i. Class Turbellaria (Ex. Planaria)1. Most are marine, some are freshwater, few are terrestrial 2. Predators and scavengers3. Body surface is ciliated4. Eyespotsii. Class Trematoda (commonly called “flukes”)1. Parasites (have varieties of hosts that are usually vertebrates)iii. Class Cestoda (commonly called “tapeworms”)1. Head region = scolex a. Contains hooks and sucker2. Has “packets” of reproductive = proglottidsa. Packets contain thousands of eggs b. Packet will break off in hopes of getting elsewhere3. Reproduce asexually through proglottidsV. Pseudocoelomatesa. Phylum Rotifera (commonly called “rotifers”)i. Cell constant animals meaning that it is exactly the same sizeii. Once a cell is lost, it is not replaced by mitosis because these creatures cannot do mitosis after embryonic developmentiii. Has a grinding organ called a mastax or “trophi”iv. Can have parthenogenesis where the eggs develop without being fertilized by spermv. Bilateral symmetryvi. Sexual reproduction only happens during hard times b. Phylum Nematoda (commonly called “round worms,” “hookworms,” and “filaria worms”)i. Longitudinal muscles only so there is not a whole lot of controlled movementii. Some are parasitic and some are free-livingiii. Hydrostatic skeletoniv. Bilateral symmetryVI. Coelomatesa. Phylum Nemertea (commonly called proboscis/ribbon worms)i. coelomate classification is just up for questionii. differs from flatworms in 2 major ways1. one-way digestive system2. simple circulatory


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