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LATIN AMERICAPANGEA: all land was together  The plates moved due to pressure which formed the Continents -Continents: social construction  Africa and U.S. collided which created the Appalachian Mountains ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY  Agriculture -Sustenance Farming: use land for food and life Ex. Share cropping of wheat, cattle, corn, soy -Con: when there was drought, there was death -Pro: Led to Urban Migration  Trade -Improves quality of life -Number one and cheapest way is to move goods across water Ex. Of key navigation points Panama Canal, Panama Cape Horn, Argentina/Chile Straight of Magellan  Atacama Desert- The winds that flow up the high mountains prevent rain - Andes are located on the right side of the plateaus  Mountain Aconcagua -Highest mountain in South America PHISIOGRAPHIC REGIONS of South America  The Chaco-low flat land (clay) swamp -not good for agriculture Ex. Paraguay and Llanos -largest supply of Oil resources in the Western Hemisphere (2nd to Saudi Arabia)  Brazilian Highlands  Amazon Basin and Amazon River-Large river valley (1/3rd of South America) -Equator runs through the Basin -Rainforest and climate provides Biodiversity/ ~15% of World’s Oxygen/ Medicine/ Industrial Materials/Minerals and other Unique Compounds -Fertile land for Agriculture -Amazon River is the 2nd largest in the world -Begins in the high mountains and is created by melted snow/ ice-Over 250 rivers connect to it -Destroyed by deforestation (10-15%) Other things he talked about that you need to know:  Magdalena River in Colombia  Guiana Highlands  Orinoco River  Angel Falls in Venezuela -*Highest Waterfall  Paraguay River and Parana River join to create Rio  Iguana Falls (not sure about spelling) -2x more water than Niagara Falls -not to be confused with the biggest waterfall Victoria Falls, Africa PEOPLE of LATIN AMERICA  AMERINDIANS -Peaked ~100-150 million people in 15th century A little bit of history-1492 Christopher Columbus and crew comes to Americas (settled South America first)They bring with them small pox/ measles -1515 ~14 million people died to do disease and murder -Today 2.5-3.5 million people -95% of Natives (80-100 million people) died within 100 years  MESTIZO -Offspring of Europeans and Natives -Plantation/ African slave period  MULATTO -Offspring of African slaves and EuropeansRACIAL ALTITUDE  Tierra Caliente: European/Amerindian -agriculture, lowest level Tierra Templada: Amerindian/Escaped and Freed Slavs -big cities of Latin America Tierra Fria  Tierra Helada: exclusively Amerindian Tierra Nevada: Amerindian MORE on European Conquistadors -In search of precious metals, only found silver -Bullion (esp. Silver) taken home in galleon -led to the development of Mercantilism which led to Capitalism-SUGAR is number one crop in Latin America and is number one desired crop in Europe-Religion aspect, convert to Christianity Why has North America been so successful?  1776- American Exceptionalism: state ruled by the people  1945- end of WWII-England, France, Russia, etc. all wiped out -Except for America, who becomes #1 by default-Held 75% of worlds GDP  Today- America holds 28%, but is still richer than 1945  Rate of growth for rest of the world is much faster, America’s share is not as greatEFFECTS ON EUROPELand Tenor  By the Portuguese and Spanish  Land is divided in Europe based on Roman Empire  Created Latifundia SystemLatifundia System  By Portuguese and Spanish  Peasants were sent to turn land into Agriculture  Bases of Feudal System in EuropeRenaissance in Europe Applied science to agriculture to increase crops Agricultural Revolution 1500-1600’s  Began in North Europe (East England, Germany, Netherlands, Belgium)  Large number of Peasants move to river valleys for guild type jobs  Created the Town System1607 ENGLISH COME TO NORTH AMERICA  Peasants were kicked off European land  Brought town system  Brought new religion: Protestant  Plantations were owned by Dukes, ran by land lords -Towns ran by Governors -Amerindians were replaced by IRISH slaves for free labor -Plantation only grows ONE crop for export/profit 1643 ENGLAND Protestant / Parliamentary /Town Ran VS Royalist Supporters/ Feudal Stylist/ Catholic/ Plantation  Creates English Civil War -200 year long process of war -Protestant/Parliamentary won -Similar to American Civil War NORTH AMERICA VS SOUTH AMERICA differences  Capitalism and town oriented -best economical interest -invaded 763 other countries (mostly South American islands) -“Protecting our Interests” Plantation, 99.9% peasants make profits for the rich, 0 middle class -leads to communism and socialism SOUTH AMERICAN INDIVIDUAL COUNTRIES BRAZIL (Brasilia)  Very different focus  Demographics:-large population over 190 million people-unbalanced equilibrium-Poorest Distribution of Wealth  Tremendous natural resources  Over 70% of world’s oranges are grown  Major Future Oil Producer Amazon River runs through Brazil  MANAUS City “capital of Amazon Region”-2.5 million population -tearing down Jungle for tourism -River port for agriculture and metals/minerals  RIO DE JANIERO City “Old Capital” -mountainous, rivers-famous beaches -most diverse population in America -Careoka’s, Samba, Mardi Gras, Party City  SAO PAULO “Super City”-Primate City -Greatest % of migrants (40% are squatters) -20-25 million people -2.5x more skyscrapers than NYC -Economic Miracle  BRASILIA-new city capital as of 1960Testable Pictures: *Sugarloaf Mountain *Corcovado (The Christ the king statue) *Capital Building *Cathedral *Sao Paulo City *Iguassu Falls (one of the three largest) *Angel Falls (highest waterfall) ARGENTINA (Buenos Aires) Primate City: Buenos Aires  Mostly flat land  Demographics-European (more European than any other country) -90-95% White -Argentines are from all countries in Europe-Catholic, Spanish Speaking, Spanish Culture  Tremendous Resources  Misdistribution of Wealth -inflation-In the last 50 years, claimed bankruptcy 4 times (last time being in 2004)  EVA PERON aka EVITA -married a COL -became very popular amongst poor Ex. Kissed leper, nursed people, visited all European countries-Set up Right Wing political organization -hated by the rich/super rich and not welcomed in N. America -nominated at Vice President -1976 military COO set up to get rid of her

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