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Russia• 80% is heavily forested• Vast natural resources• Continentality: Greater distance from sea; more intense temperature• Russification: force citizens of country to have universal language, religion, etc.• Scorched Earth Tactic: retreat into a country and burning land to spread offenders weak; leave them without supplies during harsh winterRussian Landforms• Permafrost: Soil that is frozen• Tundra: Top inches of permafrost thaw out, Short grasses grow; soggy, swampy• Taiga: Thick rich forest with deep roots• Steppe: Grassland, Good for wheatRussian Physical Features1. Kola Peninsula: Gulf Stream current keeps area warm despite being very north.2. Siberia: Center of Russia3. Ural Mts: small mountain range, feature that distinguishes Europe and Asia4. Tien Chen Mts: Asian Mountains5. Caucasus Mts: Numerous valleys with many different culture within each valley6. Lake Baikal: Deepest lake in the world, Unique biology7. Lena River: Lake Baikal  Arctic Ocean8. Yakutsk Peninsula: Greatest natural resource\9. Yenisei River: TIen Chen Arctic Ocean; frozen 9 month a year10. Ob River: Flows north into Arctic ocean; often frozen11. Volga River: South flowing river. Baltic  Caspian Sea; important for trade12. Don River: South flowing; flows into Black Sea. Must go through BosporusRussian Cities• Capital: Moscow• Murmansk: City of Russian Navy\• Vladivostok: Seaport, boomed in 1900’s; aka Eastern Fortress, major trade port• Trans-Siberian Railroad: Moscow  Vladivostok• Yakutsk: Mining, mineral refinement• Irkutsk: Near Lake Baikal, very diverse because it served as a destination for criminals• Novosibirsk: On Ob river, City of engineers, Capital of Western Siberia• Yekaterinburg: Capital of Ural region, HQ of Boeing Aircraft• Nizhny-Novgorod: Most industrial city in Russia, steel factories• Kazan: Islamic City• Tatar: Mongolian descendants• Samara: Manufactures planes, rockets, and satellites• Volgograd: Old Stalingrad, where WWII was won, canals at Don and Volga rivers. Trade port• Rostov: Only large city with sea access, Lots of technology; Kazak racial group• Saint Petersburg: “Manmade City”; gorgeousEuropeCaucasus Nations• Azerbaijano Capital: Bakuo Lots of oil• Georgiao Capital: Tbilisio Mafia-like organization, very aggressive peopleo Home of Stalin• Armeniao Capital: Yerevan o Landing place of Noah’s ArcEuropean Physical Features• Europe is a “peninsula of peninsulas”• Scandinavian Peninsulao Sweden, Norway, Finland• Jutland Peninsulao Denmark• Iberian Peninsulao Spain, Portugal• Italian Peninsula• Balkan Peninsulao Greece, Croatia, Romania.• Peloponnesian Peninsulao Tip of Greece• Brittany Peninsulao French, Celtic• Normandy Peninsula1. Pyrenees Mts: separate Iberian Peninsula from Europe2. Alps Mts: Largest Mtn range n Europe3. Danube River: Germany Black Sea; 8 countries use it for trade4. Rhine River: Prosperous, majorly industrial, enters ocean at Rotterdam5. Elba River: Germanys biggest seaport; Hamburg6. Po River7. Vistula River8. Thames River: Runs through LondonDifferent types of European• Eastern Europeo Slavic and Orthodox• Romantic Europeo Italy, France, Spaino Latin Language, Catholic, Western Democracy• Germanic Europeo Lutheran in the Northo Catholic in SouthEastern EuropeUkraine• Capital: Kiev• Major player in wheat• Dnipro River• Chernobyl nuclear disaster• Crimean PeninsulaBelarus• Capital: Minsk• Similar to Russia, less progressive• The Pale: Segregated land for JewsPoland• Capital: Warsaw• Krakow: Cultural centerBalkan Nations Balkanization- Fracturing of countries Serbia• Capital: Belgrade• Serbs: Largest Slavic ethnic groupSlovenia• Capital: LjubljanaCroatia• Capital: Zagreb• Dubrovnik: gated city on the coast Bosnia• Capital: Sarajevo• Huge genocide against Bosnian MuslimsKosovo• Capital: Pristina• Essential a county of Serbia• Cultural center of Serbia• Declared independence from Serbia but is not recognized by many nations.Czech Republic & Slovakia• Czech Capital: Prague• Slovakian Capital: Bratislava• Same language, very similar people• Czechs are more industrial while Slovaks are more agricultural Bulgaria• Capital: Sofia• Pres. Bush called it “New Europe”Albania• Capital: Tirana• Turkish, Muslim, poorest country in EuropeMacedonia aka FYROM• Capital: SkopjeMontenegro• Capital: PodgoricaGreece• Capital: Athens• 1st large civilization• Peloponnesian peninsulaRomania• Capital: Bucharest• Made of several regionso Transylvaniao Moldavia Cultural heartland of RomaniaHungary• Capital: Budapest• Surrounded by mountainsBaltic Nations: Near Baltic SeaLithuania• Capital: Vilnius• Communist, poorest of the Baltics• Basketball• Most rural Baltic nationLatvia• Capital: Rigao Seaport• Large Russian population• Russian frequently spokenEstonia• Capital: Tallinn• Descended from Mongolia• Culturally and economically similar to Finish peopleScandinavian Nations: Lie on Scandinavian Peninsula and practice mostly LutheranismFinland• Capital: Helsinki• Technology big part of economy, Nokia HQ’d thereSweden• Capital: Stockholmo City of islands• Goteborg• Industrial nations• Mandated 0% carbon emissions by 2020Norway• Capital: Oslo• Fjords• Lots of oilDenmark• Capital: Copenhagen• Dairy and agriculture• Prescription drugsGermanic CountriesGermany• Capital: Berlin• Incredibly efficient economy (4th in the world)• Hamburg: On the Elbe River; biggest seaport• Frankfort: THE airport, center of banking and business, European Central Bank• Stuttgart: Metropol; auto industry and US armed forces HQ• Munich: Oktoberfest, Siemens Co.Austria• Capital: Viennao Music CapitalRomantic Europe: Catholic, Latin-based LanguageFrance• Capital: Paris• Strong Cultural Nationalism• Industrial• Marseilleo Best Seaporto Darker peopleo Drugs• Lyono Medical Researcho Interpolo Capital of French cuisine• Bordeauxo Wineo Cheese• Toulouseo HQ of AirbusItaly• Capital: Rome• Po Valley: 80% of Italy’s GPAo Milan, Venice, Turin• Milan: Primate cityo Fashion• Napleso Center of Italian Cultureo Home of Pizzao Close to the ancient city of Pompeii• FlorenceIberian CountriesSpain• Capital Madrid• Andalucía: Southern portion of Spaino Strong traditional rootso Bull fighting• Savillao Major city of Andalucía• Valenciao Oranges,

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FSU GEA 1000 - Russia

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