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Africa Africa Problems: deforestation, environmental, China exploitations, global warming, waterAid in Africa- Foreign Oil comes from Nigeria to US and ChinaChokepoints:- Suez Canal in Egypt- Bab Emended between Yemen and Djibouti- Cape of Good Hope located on South of Africa - Bosporus in Turkey o ships come through here from Black Sea through Istanbul- Strait Of Hormuz o more than half of all the oil in the world come through Iran and Oman Land Features:- Sahara Desert: “Desert Desert”: Northern 1/3 of Africa, biggest in the world o Growing due to desertificationo “The Sahel”  Above Sahel, Arab and Muslim  Below Sahel, more than 12k tribal groups, languages, religions - Islam, Christianity, Syncretic o takes western practices and merges them with tribal practices ex. Voodoo - Savannah - Namib Desert: lower east point of Africa- Kalahari Desert: lower east point of Africa- Escarpment o sharp cliff, this the west coast of Africa- The Great Escarpment: greatest drop-off, mountains- Ruinzoees, Uganda: silver back gorillas live here- Atlas Mountains: o Northeast mountains in Morocco and Algeria - Mount Kilimanjaroo highest mountain in Africa - Lake Victoriao largest lake in Africao Nile River flows out from here - Zambeezee (biggest waterfall, Victoria Falls)Africa Rivers:- Orange River: South Africa- Nileo Longest river in the worldo Egypt- Congo (Transportation, Fishing)- Niger (Transportation)The oldest human fossils are found in the Oldivy Gorge (African Volcano) in Tanzania 2nd oldest found in Ethiopia Then all the way up to India and Asia Great Rift Valley- Deepest crack in the surface of Planet Earth - Valley that turns into the Red Sea and finally the Dead Sea- East Africao Starts in Tanzania, up to Egypt and right turn up towards turkey, between Israel and Jordan The Horn of Africa- Eastern tip sticking out in the Indian Ocean- Strategic location o Every world power wants a location here for transportation - Pirates of Somalia are located here!Babel Mendeb- 10 miles wide, you can see across itEGYPT - 96% is desert, 90 mill live along the Nile - 20 years old or younger - Biggest Arab country in the world - Cairo o Top of Nile’s Deltao 25% of people live here o 3 Great Pyramids (79 pyramids in Egypt) o Largest City in the Middle East - Alexandria (an island, one of the World’s oldest cities)o Alexander the Greato Oil/Refining and Seaport o Radical cityAfrica  Pharaoh’s Lighthouse The Great Library (storage of all learning)LIBYA - Very high quality oil o European’s are dependent on this - 300+ Tribes cause conflictso Kaddafi unified Tribes and made the country wealthy by spreading oil/wealth o Decided to sell oil to Chinese, European countries where losing oil supply- “Stateless State” today - Capital: Tripoli TUNISIA- Business comes from European tourism (FRENCH) o Beaches attract millions of people - Conservative, Muslim - Capital: TunisALGERIA - 44 million people o Also, French - Very Conservative, Strict Islamic Government caused coo in 1992 o Led to Civil War o More than a ¼ million people died - Capital: Algiers MOROCCO - Very poor, lowest levels of education o Parliamentary Democracy o King leads the country o Arab/Muslim - Capital: Rabat o Very modern new city - Casablanca o Primate city o “The White House” Every single building is painted white SUDAN - Arabs, Black Africans - MOST CONSERVATIVEAfrica o Very strict traditions - America and Israel VS Sudan o Allied with China, sells oil to China - Famous for Gum supplying - Capital: Khartoum - Western Three Provinces o Darfur  Region inside of Sudan (Much like counties)  Two way civil war, genocide killing each other o South Sudan  Money given to South Sudan because they’re Christian ETHIOPIA - Very high elevation - 45 million people - Blue and White Nile rivers - Longest, continuously Independent country in the world - Capital: Addis Ababa o HQ of AU o Ethiopian Airlines (#1 airline for Africa) 1885 Conference of Berlin - 16 countries divided up Africa into 54 different countries and Europeans selected their places - 1898, Italy got beaten by the Ethiopians - 1933, Mussolini fails at taking over Ethiopia Arab: Ethnicity South Africa- Strongest resource based economy- Large population/well education population- Strong infrastructure- Clean water, electricity- 90-95% of the world’s platinum- Most of the world’s gold and diamonds- Tremendous agriculture- Tremendous military- Sell guns, weapons, and have nuclear powerCountries:- South Africa (economic motor of Africa)Africa - Nigeria (largest country, by population, of Africa)- Egypt (over 5,000 years old, 2nd largest population, strategic location)- Libya (oil, conflict, Kaddafi, divided into three areas) - Tunisia- Morocco - Sudan (oil, 1st country to split in two—South Sudan/North Sudan)- Ethiopia (longest with continuous independence in the world)- Cote d’Ivoire (chocolate)- Madagascar Cities:- Cape Town (oldest city)- Kimberley (diamonds)- Johannesburg (largest city)- Pretoria (capital city of South Africa)- Durban (World’s 9th largest sea port, Indian immigrants)- Lagos, Nigeria (2nd largest city)- Abuja (capital of Nigeria)- Cairo (pyramids, Nile)- Alexandria (pharaoh’s lighthouse, great library)- Khartoum (Sudan capital)- Juba (south Sudan capital)- Darfur (genocide—U.S.; civil war—rest of the world)- Addis Abada (African Union)- Bab el Mendeb- Abidjan (Cote d’Ivoire)- Yamassoukro (Cote d’Ivoire capital)-

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FSU GEA 1000 - Africa

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