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CHAPTER 1 Globalization the increasing interconnectedness of people and places through converging processes of economic political and cultural change Many observers argue that contemporary globalization is the most fundamental reorganization of the planet s socioeconomic structure since the Industrial Revolution It is argued that Transnational Firms create environmental problems in the expanding globalized economy by disrupting local ecosystems in their search for natural resources and manufacturing sites A bubble economy is a highly inflated economy typically resulting from a rapid influx of international capital into a developing country that cannot be sustained Fundamentally geography is a spatial science used to describe and explain the uniqueness and similarities of places located on Earth s surface The cultural landscape is the visible material expression of human settlement past and present A common starting point for measuring demographic change is the Rate of Natural Increase RNI which depicts as a percentage the annual growth rate for a country or region The hypothetical number that measures the fertility of a statistically fictitious yet average group of women moving through their childbearing years is the Total Fertility Rate TFR Migration push factors such as civil strife environmental degradation or unemployment drive people from their homelands Fully 20 percent of migrants live in just 20 world cities Currently 50 percent of the world s population lives in cities with an estimated 60 percent living in cities by the year 2025 A city that is disproportionately large and dominates economic political and cultural activities within a country has urban primacy Squatter settlements are illegal developments of makeshift housing on land neither owned nor rented by their inhabitants Cultural nationalism protects and defends a cultural system against diluting or offensive cultural expressions while at the same time actively promoting national and local cultural values North American English and British English are examples of dialects Judaism is NOT recognized as one of the worlds s universalizing religions A relatively homogeneous cultural group occupying its own fully independent political territory is a nation state Political boundaries that follow cultural traits such as language or religion are Ethnographic Boundaries In order to obtain a sense of the true cost of living in an area on can adjust raw economic data to create a comparable figure for a common market basket of goods and services purchased with local currency this adjustment is called Purchasing Power Parity Number of live births per 1 000 population is NOT an indicator of regional or national social development Many forces tend to hold a nation together or were factors in nation building due to their advantages The following are centripetal forces forces that promote political unity and reinforce the state structure shared sense of history need for military security and advantages of a large political apparatus In 2001 the United States went to war not with the state of Afghanistan but rather a confederation of religious extremists the Taliban and Al Qaeda military strategists refer to this type of conflict as Asymmetrical Warfare CHAPTER 2 Plate Tectonics the idea that Earth has a number of geological plates that move slowly across its surface Bushmeat is becoming a serious problem in Western Africa Bushmeat is the poaching of wild game in Africa for human consumption Why has this problem developed There are fewer fish for local fisherman which leads to a higher kill rate for Bushmeat West Africans cannot find affordable fish in local markets the European catch has increased 20 fold over the last several decades and commercial European fishing fleets have increased off the west coast of Africa over the last several decades Which of the following is found along a divergent plate boundary African Rift Valley The greenhouse effect is the natural process of lower atmosphere heating that results from the trapping of incoming and reradiated solar energy by water vapor clouds and other atmospheric gases Daily weather variations are NOT a factor in creating climate Carbon Monoxide is NOT responsible for the bulk of recent global warming The term Continentality is used to describe inland climates with hot summers and cold snowy winters such as those found in interior North America and Russia The letter A is used in the Koppen system to denote a tropical climate Likely effects of global warming include flooding of low lying coastal areas including entire countries melting of polar ice sheets and glaciers shifts in major areas of agricultural production and rising sea levels China contributes more to greenhouse gas emissions than any other country Freshwater accounts for 3 percent of the total global water supply Of the freshwater supply approximately 1 percent is in the form of surface rivers and lakes 30 years of daily weather data are required before climatologists and geographers can construct a picture of an areas climate The 1992 Earth Summit that formulated the first legal instrument to address global warming was held in Rio de Janeiro Brazil An estimated of the population of Africa will experience water shortages by the year 2025 Currently about half of all tropical forest timber is destined for Japan A grouping of the world s flora and fauna into a large ecological province or a region is called a biome or bioregion Tropical deforestation is occurring at unprecedented rates because increased population increased demand for wood products globalization and cattle ranching The United Nations predicts that currently almost 200 million people in South Asia suffer from chronic undernourishment The large tracts of forests found in middle and high latitudes are called temperate forests The Green Revolution has allowed food production to keep pace with increasing population numbers by doing all of the following except decreasing the number of irrigated fields worldwide Which of the following is NOT indicative of global food and agricultural issues Agricultural production has not been able to keep up with population growth in the last few decades resulting in widespread famine crises in East Asia South Asia and Africa Green Revolution agriculture now consumes almost 10 percent of the World s annual oil output Spatially almost half of deforestation is in the Amazon Basin of South America However deforestation appears

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