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FSU GEA 1000 - Final Exam Review: World Religions

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1. JudaismZakhor: Awareness; “remember”; “a communal way of embodying the present. . . . Memory is not an activity of the mind only, but of the body and of the minds and bodies of others. Like seeing, remembering is a dynamic, interactive process” (S. Brent Plate). Problem of representation, the “useful” past  translating past into present.How not to forget?  Architecture, Ritual, Scripture (tefillin)Torah: Hebrew Bible (first five books). Greek  Pentateuch. Core of Hebrew Bible.CreationGenesis 1-11Garden of EdenAdam and EveTwo stories with different emphasesEtiology: explanatory mythAllegorical introduction to the rest of the Hebrew Bible?Covenant“contract” between God and his chosen peopleNoah, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, MosesPatriarch: “father source”Lineage traced to AbrahamGod provides land (Israel), protection, descendantsAbraham and male descendants become circumcised as a sign of their exclusive relationship with God (Gen. 17)Tanakh: Acronym for the three collections that comprise the entire volume of Hebrew bible.Motifs central of Jewish religious identity: Creation, Covenant, Exodus, Law.Exodus: Metaphor of the transition from slavery under the Egyptians to the chosen people with a destiny and a purpose. Going out, departure, emigration.MosesCommemorated during PassoverMotif and circumstances of exile / diaspora repeated throughout Jewish historyMitzvot/Commandments:LawDecalogue (Ten Commandments)Exodus 20:2-17; Deuteronomy 5:6-21Stipulations of the covenant613 recognized laws (mitzvot)Books of Exodus and Leviticus outline different obligations, from social laws regarding the treatment of slaves, animals, and property to ritual laws required to maintain ritual purityNumbers includes an historical account of the years spent wandering in the desert and Deuteronomy recounts the law and describes the death of MosesTabernacleArk of the Covenant: Throne of God’s presenceSynagogue: Up to ½ of all Jews are not affiliated with a synagogue. This doesn’t mean they are not religious. “lead together” “Gathering” “Assembly”. Not required for worship. Prayerscan be followed at home or any other place.Distinctive architectureSecond to third century (100-300 CE)Prayed facing JerusalemNiche in wall facing the congregation for the TorahEast wall in western countries (Europe and the US)Prayers at home: MizrahNiche became a piece of furniture called the “ark”Invokes Ark of the Covenant from pre-Temple periodHouses the Torah scrolls (sefer Torah)Tefillin: Scripture Judaism. Two small leather boxes containing verses from the Torah. Usually worn by men.Talmud: (Three bodies of Rabbinical Commentary) Midrash, Mishnah, Talmud.Commentary upon the MishnahThird century CEOne Mishnah, Two TalmudsEach Talmud is composed of the Mishnah and a gemarah (commentary)Jerusalem (or Palestinian) TalmudLikely produced in northern Palestine and not in JerusalemInsight into Judaism during a period of intense deterioration and ascendancy of Christianity as the state religionBabylonian TalmudPersians more tolerant of the Jewish communityMore developed legal discussionsAscended in status among Talmudic scholarsIn both Talmuds, the Mishnah is in Hebrew and the gemaroth are in AramaicBomberg Talmud is one of the earliest printed Talmuds, Venice ca. 1526-1548. Rediscovered in the basement of a college near London in 1992.Kashrut: Set of Jewish dietary lawsSephardim: Early modern Judaism. Jews from the pre-modern Mediterranean religion. Mediterranean, Iberian, North Africa.Ashkenazim: Jews from the pre-modern central and eastern Europe.Megillat Esther: 3rd section of the Jewish Tanakh (Bible). Girl Esther becomes Queen of Persia and plans to commit genocide against he own people.2. ChristianityGospel: Christian scriptures; “good news”; biographical…sort of. “synoptic”  Mark, Luke, Matthew. John  logos=word/pattern, divine intelligence. Incarnation.Pentecost: (Act of Apostles  Transition from sect to church)Experience of the “Holy Spirit” as a rush of wind and fireSpeak and understand diverse languages (glossolalia)Paul: (Epistles) Biographical sketch in the acts. Letters to churches after conversion are the earliest form of Christian literature. Establishes Christianity as a separate religion (One does not have to become Jewish in order to follow Jesus). His travels establish Christian communities in port cities of Roman Empire by 65CE.Jesus: Christians follow Jesus. God. Central figure of Christianity. Son of God and Messiah. Executed on a cross.Demonstrated powerlessness of humanity to effect salvation and the necessity of an intermediaryAniconic: not employing or permitting images, idols, of dive being.Acts of the Apostles: transition from sect to church (Christianity); Pentecost. 5th book of New Testament.Holy Ghost People: (1967) Pentecostal religionAppalachiaScrabble Creek, West VirginiaWhy focus on a single denomination in a particular region?Christianity (like other religions) intimately tied with culture and regionAll of the religions we have studied have reflected regional and cultural influences, we just haven’t been as attentive to them as we could beWhy this case study?makes us think about our implicit categories of “good religion” and “bad religion”attentive to our vocabularies and mechanisms of distancing and identificationDocumentary“cinema verite”Sacraments: Protestant Reformation; medieval sacramentalism.Sign – person, place, object, or action- that is regarded as holy. “links in a chain to God”vehicles through which sacred power became present for believersCentral demonstration of sacramentalism was the incarnation of Jesus in human formObstacles to true communion and understanding7 Sacraments: Baptism, confirmation, penance, Eucharist, holy orders, matrimony, extreme unction.5 of 7 associated with life events. The other two, Eucharist and Penance-provided regular assistance through life.Constantine:Christians had suffered great persecution under Roman emperors in the third centuryFinal and fiercest persecution began with the emperor Diocletian in 303 CE (early 4th century)Diocletian succeeded by Constantine (r. 306-37)Converted to Christianity himself at the end of his lifeConversion precipitated by a vision“conquer in this sign” [Latin: in hoc signo vinces]Under Constantine, the Church helped to stabilize the EmpireExchange between Christianity and “paganism”pagan: “peasant,” from Latin for


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