FSU GEA 1000 - John Fradel Africa & Middle East Study Guide

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GEA1000 Study Guide Page 1GEA1000 John Fradel Africa & Middle East Study GuideAFRICAAFRICA- Key Terms• Whole continent is a large plateau; mostly desert; sandy terrain• Most of sub-Saharan Africa lies on plateaus marked by escarpments or faults resulting in landmasses of different elevation• Lowlands and plains border Atlantic and Indian Oceans.• Atlas Mountains by Algeria • Tallest Mountain is Mt. Kilimanjaro • Drakensberg range found in South Africa.• Great Rift Valley stretches from South West Asia to Southern Africa; valley has rich volcanic soil god for agriculture• Largest lake: Lake Victoria • 4 large River systems: Nile, Congo, Niger, Orange and Zambezi home to Victoria Falls• Oil-Principle export for countries along Atlantic Coast• Large deposits of Gold and Diamonds also found in Africa.GEA1000 Study Guide Page 2• Sahara Desert Largest in the world most of Northern Half of Africa• Namib Desert Near Southwest coast of Africa • Kalahari Desert Central South AfricaAfrican Physical Geography MapGEA1000 Study Guide Page 3GEA1000 Study Guide Page 4African Countries & Cities• South Africao Capital: Johannesburg o Kimberly- Diamond Capitalo Other Important Cities: Cape Town, Durban, Pretoriao Lots of gold deposits• Nigeriao Capital: Abuja o Primate city is Lagoso Most Africans are Nigerian• Egypt o Capital: Cairoo Alexandria Home of 2 Ancient Wonders; Lighthouse of Alexandria and Library of Alexandria.• Cote d’Ivoireo Capital: Yamoussoukroo Main export is Cocoa Beans• Ugandao Capital: Kampalao Home to the Silverback GorillasGEA1000 Study Guide Page 5• Sudano Capital: Khartoum • South Sudano Capital: Juba• Ethiopiao Capital: Addis Ababa•GEA1000 Study Guide Page 6GEA1000 Study Guide Page 7GEA1000 Study Guide Page 8Africa Pictures for Test• Cairo o Great Pyramidso The Sphinx• Alexandria o Center of Learning (Library of Alexandria)o Citadel of Alexandria o Lighthouse of Alexandria• Suez Canal (Physical Feature) o Suez Canal• Cape town- o Skyline of Capetowno Tabletop Mountain• Cape of Good Hope (Physical Feature) o Cape of Good Hope• JohannesburgGEA1000 Study Guide Page 9o GOLD• Kimberlyo Diamond Center• Gibraltaro Rock of Gibraltar• Mt. Kilimanjaro (Physical Feature)o Mt. Kilimanjaro• Ugandao Gorillas• Madagascaro Lemurs• Yamoussoukroo Cocoa treesMiddle East Key Terms• Irredentism- belief that if an ethnic group ruled a land in the past it should have rights to it now.GEA1000 Study Guide Page 10• Rent tier State- A state who’s GDP comes primarily from selling its resources to other countries, or private company.• Zagros Mountains and Taurus Mountains converge to outline two specific landmasses Zagros form southern border of Iran and Taurus form Southern border of Turkey• Iran is on a plateau historically home to people called Persians• Taurus Mountains. on south edge and Pontic Mountains on north edge of Turkey; creates Anatolia Peninsula• El Farot aka Euphrates and Tigris- Most important rivers in the region• Mesopotamia- Earliest civilization founded between Tigris and Euphrates• Shatt el Arab- Confluence of Tigris and Euphrates Rivers; discharges into Persian Gulf• Dead Sea- hyper saline lake; lowest elevation body of water in the world• Jordan River- Connects Dead Sea to the south to Sea of Galilee to the North• Caspian Sea- Low lying body of water, lots of natural oil deposits• Arabian or Persian Gulf- Home of Arab racial group• Islam - A major world religion and popular in Middle East and Central Asia. Two schools include Sunni and ShiaGEA1000 Study Guide Page 11Middle Eastern Countries• Kazakhstano Capital: Astanao Almaty: Largest city and former capitalo Space Center; Baykhonur Cosmodromeo Borders Aral Sea• Tajikistano Capital: Dushanbe• Kyrgyzstano Capital: Bishkek• Uzbekistano Capital: Tashkent Tashkent considered capital of Central Asiao Samarkand: Old Capital and Center of trade: o Intersection of the Silk Road and India-Russia Road at Samarkando Twice the population of Kazakhstano No oil or natural resourceso Overused the Amu Darya River• Turkmenistano Capital: Ashgabato Mostly deserto Tobacco is biggest exportGEA1000 Study Guide Page 12• Afghanistano Capital: Kabulo Khaduhar: Capital of Patan tribeo “Graveyard of Empires”o Land is mostly Hindu Kush Mountainso Khyber Pass- only opening in Hindu Kush, strategic point.o Patriarchal society: People put family or tribe before country.o Diverse ethnic and religious group• Irano Capital: Tehrano Radical Shia population in Mashhado Esfahan- Tourism, steel capital, center of nuclear scienceo Tabriz- Persian Carpet capital, Pistachios, largest Bazaaro Shiraz- “City of Roses” Dark purple wine o People are Persian and Aryano Lots of Natural Gaso Currently enriching uranium; source of international conflicto Kavir Deserto Majority of population is Shia Muslimo Shah- Right winged dictatoro Straits of Hormuz- Gateway for most of the world’s oil.• Iraqo Capital: Baghdado Two ethnic and religious groups: Arab & Kurd, Sunni & ShiaGEA1000 Study Guide Page 13o Silk Road crosses Tigris at Mosulo Large Amounts of Oil in Al Basrah• Turkeyo Capital: Ankarao Primate City: Istanbulo Lies on Anatolian Plateauo Mt. Ararat, likely landing spot of Noah’s Arc• Cypruso Capital: Nicosiao Racially Greeko Island divided between Turks and Greeks with wall dividing island.• Syriao Capital: Damascuso Largest city is Aleppoo #1 enemy of Israelo Member of Shia Crescent with Iraq and Iran• Lebanono Capital: Beirut• Jordano Capital: Ammano Petra: City carved into a mountain• Yemeno Capital: Sannao Primate city: AdenGEA1000 Study Guide Page 14• Kuwaito Capital: Kuwait City• Bahraino Capital: Manama• United Arab Emirateso Capital: Abu Dhabio Largest city: Dubai• Omano Capital: Muscato Incense capital of the world• Saudi Arabiao Capital: Riyadho Mecca: Birthplace of the Muslim prophet Muhammado Jeddah: 2nd largest City• Israelo Capital: Jerusalem (unofficially)o Tel Aviv: #2 city and is officially the capital of Israelo Jews persecuted for hundreds of years; returned from Europe when Hitler was in power.o Zionism: Belief that Jews should have a homeland in the Middle Easto Important Cities: Jerusalem, Haifa, Ramallah, Nazareth, BethlehemGEA1000 Study Guide Page 15Israel MapGEA1000 Study Guide Page 16Middle East Testable Pictures• Ashgabat, Turkmenistano Neutrality Archo Wheat Museumo

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