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GEA1000 John Fradel Africa Middle East Study Guide GEA1000 Study Guide Page 1 AFRICA AFRICA Key Terms Whole continent is a large plateau mostly desert sandy terrain Most of sub Saharan Africa lies on plateaus marked by escarpments or faults resulting in landmasses of different elevation Lowlands and plains border Atlantic and Indian Oceans Atlas Mountains by Algeria Tallest Mountain is Mt Kilimanjaro Drakensberg range found in South Africa Great Rift Valley stretches from South West Asia to Southern Africa valley has rich volcanic soil god for agriculture Largest lake Lake Victoria 4 large River systems Nile Congo Niger Orange and Zambezi home to Victoria Falls Oil Principle export for countries along Atlantic Coast Large deposits of Gold and Diamonds also found in Africa GEA1000 Study Guide Page 2 Sahara Desert Largest in the world most of Northern Half of Africa Namib Desert Near Southwest coast of Africa Kalahari Desert Central South Africa African Physical Geography Map GEA1000 Study Guide Page 3 GEA1000 Study Guide Page 4 African Countries Cities South Africa o Capital Johannesburg o Kimberly Diamond Capital o Other Important Cities Cape Town Durban Pretoria o Lots of gold deposits Nigeria o Capital Abuja o Primate city is Lagos o Most Africans are Nigerian Egypt o Capital Cairo o Alexandria Alexandria Cote d Ivoire o Capital Yamoussoukro o Main export is Cocoa Beans Uganda o Capital Kampala o Home to the Silverback Gorillas Home of 2 Ancient Wonders Lighthouse of Alexandria and Library of GEA1000 Study Guide Page 5 Sudan o Capital Khartoum South Sudan o Capital Juba Ethiopia o Capital Addis Ababa GEA1000 Study Guide Page 6 GEA1000 Study Guide Page 7 Africa Pictures for Test GEA1000 Study Guide Page 8 Cairo o Great Pyramids o The Sphinx Alexandria o Center of Learning Library of Alexandria o Citadel of Alexandria o Lighthouse of Alexandria Suez Canal Physical Feature o Suez Canal Cape town o Skyline of Capetown o Tabletop Mountain Cape of Good Hope Physical Feature o Cape of Good Hope Johannesburg GEA1000 Study Guide Page 9 o GOLD Kimberly o Diamond Center Gibraltar o Rock of Gibraltar Mt Kilimanjaro Physical Feature o Mt Kilimanjaro Uganda o Gorillas Madagascar o Lemurs Yamoussoukro o Cocoa trees Middle East Key Terms Irredentism belief that if an ethnic group ruled a land in the past it should have rights to it now GEA1000 Study Guide Page 10 Rent tier State A state who s GDP comes primarily from selling its resources to other countries or private company Zagros Mountains and Taurus Mountains converge to outline two specific landmasses Zagros form southern border of Iran and Taurus form Southern border of Turkey Iran is on a plateau historically home to people called Persians Taurus Mountains on south edge and Pontic Mountains on north edge of Turkey creates Anatolia Peninsula El Farot aka Euphrates and Tigris Most important rivers in the region Mesopotamia Earliest civilization founded between Tigris and Euphrates Shatt el Arab Confluence of Tigris and Euphrates Rivers discharges into Persian Gulf Dead Sea hyper saline lake lowest elevation body of water in the world Jordan River Connects Dead Sea to the south to Sea of Galilee to the North Caspian Sea Low lying body of water lots of natural oil deposits Arabian or Persian Gulf Home of Arab racial group Islam A major world religion and popular in Middle East and Central Asia Two schools include Sunni and Shia GEA1000 Study Guide Page 11 Middle Eastern Countries Kazakhstan o Capital Astana o Almaty Largest city and former capital o Space Center Baykhonur Cosmodrome o Borders Aral Sea Tajikistan o Capital Dushanbe Kyrgyzstan o Capital Bishkek Uzbekistan o Capital Tashkent Tashkent considered capital of Central Asia o Samarkand Old Capital and Center of trade o Intersection of the Silk Road and India Russia Road at Samarkand o Twice the population of Kazakhstan o No oil or natural resources o Overused the Amu Darya River Turkmenistan o Capital Ashgabat o Mostly desert o Tobacco is biggest export GEA1000 Study Guide Page 12 Afghanistan o Capital Kabul o Khaduhar Capital of Patan tribe o Graveyard of Empires o Land is mostly Hindu Kush Mountains o Khyber Pass only opening in Hindu Kush strategic point o Patriarchal society People put family or tribe before country o Diverse ethnic and religious group Iran o Capital Tehran o Radical Shia population in Mashhad o Esfahan Tourism steel capital center of nuclear science o Tabriz Persian Carpet capital Pistachios largest Bazaar o Shiraz City of Roses Dark purple wine o People are Persian and Aryan o Lots of Natural Gas o Currently enriching uranium source of international conflict o Kavir Desert o Majority of population is Shia Muslim o Shah Right winged dictator o Straits of Hormuz Gateway for most of the world s oil Iraq o Capital Baghdad o Two ethnic and religious groups Arab Kurd Sunni Shia o Island divided between Turks and Greeks with wall dividing island GEA1000 Study Guide Page 13 o Silk Road crosses Tigris at Mosul o Large Amounts of Oil in Al Basrah Turkey o Capital Ankara o Primate City Istanbul o Lies on Anatolian Plateau o Mt Ararat likely landing spot of Noah s Arc Cyprus o Capital Nicosia o Racially Greek Syria o Capital Damascus o Largest city is Aleppo o 1 enemy of Israel Lebanon Jordan o Capital Beirut o Capital Amman Yemen o Capital Sanna o Primate city Aden o Petra City carved into a mountain o Member of Shia Crescent with Iraq and Iran GEA1000 Study Guide Page 14 Kuwait Bahrain o Capital Kuwait City o Capital Manama United Arab Emirates o Capital Abu Dhabi o Largest city Dubai Oman o Capital Muscat o Incense capital of the world Saudi Arabia o Capital Riyadh o Jeddah 2nd largest City Israel o Mecca Birthplace of the Muslim prophet Muhammad o Capital Jerusalem unofficially o Tel Aviv 2 city and is officially the capital of Israel o Jews persecuted for hundreds of years returned from Europe when Hitler was in power o Zionism Belief that Jews should have a homeland in the Middle East o Important Cities Jerusalem Haifa Ramallah Nazareth Bethlehem GEA1000 Study Guide Page 15 Israel Map GEA1000 Study Guide Page 16 Middle East Testable Pictures Ashgabat Turkmenistan o Neutrality Arch o Wheat Museum o Kipchak Mosque Samarkand Uzbezistan o Registan GEA1000 Study Guide Page 17 Tehran Iran o Azadi Tower o US Embassy Anti American Art Mashhad Iran o Saffron Shiraz Iran o Shiraz wine and roses Tabriz Iran o Bazaar o Persian Carpet Baghdad Iraq o Ishtar Gate Basra Iraq o

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FSU GEA 1000 - John Fradel Africa & Middle East Study Guide

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