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FSU INR 2002 - Exam 1

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Intro to International RelationsExam 1: Friday, September 27th Introductiono Puzzles are observations about the world that demand and explanationo A theory is a logically consistent set of statements that explains a phenomenon of interesto A theory specifies the factors that play a role in causing the events we are trying to understand, and they show how these pieces fit together to make sense of the puzzleo Ex. theories of war, trade, and international environmental policyo Theories help us to describe, predict, and prescribe Describe events by identifying which factors are important andwhich are not Predict by offering a sense of how the world works Prescribe policy responses by identifying what has to be changes in order to foster better outcomeso Theories provide manageable explanations for complex phenomena We do not build theories because we believe the world is simple or mechanical, we build them because we know the world is complex and the only way to understand the important phenomena is not cut away some of the complexity and identify the most important factorso A probabilistic claim is an argument about the factors that increase or decrease the likelihood that some outcome will occuro Frameworko Interests- the goals that actors have, the outcomes they hope to obtainthrough political actiono Interactions- the ways in which two or more actors’ choices combine to produce political outcomeso Institution- set of rules, known and shared by the community, that structure political actions in particular wayso Applying the frameworko Think about who the relevant political actors are and what interests they haveo Think about the choices or strategies available to each actor and how those choices interact to produce outcomes and how the strategic interaction influences what the actors actually decide to doo Finally, think about what institutions might exist to govern their behavioro In building explanations, we do not precommit to any one set of actors or interests as being the most important regardless of the issue areao Assumptions are simplifying devices, which means that none capture the exact, entire trutho We cannot judge whether an assumption is right or wrong, rather we judge whether any particular assumption is useful or not useful in explaining the puzzleo Two broad types of interactions:o Bargaining- situations in which two or more actors try to divide something they both wanto Cooperation- when actors have common interests and need to act in a coordinated way to achieve those interestso Three levels of analysis of interactions:o International level- representatives of stateso Domestic level- subnational actors o Transnational level-groups whose members span borderso The two-step process of building explanations from the bottom-upo 1. Domestic interests, interactions, and institutions determine the interests that state representatives bring to the international levelo 2. These interests combine in international interactions and institutions to determine the final outcomeo Realismo Thucydides, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Rousseau, Morgenthauo Two key assumptions: States are the dominant actors The institutional setting of world politics is characterized by anarchy (absence of central authority)o Because there is no central government states must live in constant fear of one anothero Security is the superior interest of all states, which leads to an interestin acquiring powero “Security dilemma”- when one state improves its military capabilities to enhance its own security, it typically undermines the security of its neighborso Nearly all interactions involve bargaining and coerciono International institutions are weak and exert little independent effect on world politicso Liberalismo Accept many different types of actors as important in world politicso Doesn’t require that any one interest dominates all stateso Governments’ interests come from within; from the interplay of different domestic actors operating within domestic political institutionso Optimistic about cooperation in world politics: conflict arises when actors fail to recognize or act on common interests, but it is not inevitableo Democracy is the best way to ensure that governments’ foreign policies reflect the underlying harmony of interests among individualso The scope of cooperation gives rise to a demand for institutionso Danger of way can be reduced by: Spreading democracy Strengthening on global institutions Fostering economic interdependence o Constructivismo Focus on a wide variety of actors and interests in world politics, and believe that international institutions can be effective and transformativeo What actors want is based on their culture, prevailing ideas, and their identityo Emphasizes the role of norms, or standards of behavioro Institutions embody the rules appropriate for behavior and thereby exert a profound effect on actions and observed outcomeso Significant potential for changeo Emphasis on role of transnational actorsChapter 1: What shaped our world?- The 1800s were a time of peace and economic growth, whereas the 1900s were characterized by postwar violence, economic uncertainty, fragile democracy, financial boom, and ethnic conflict- Mercantilism was a system by which imperial governments used military power to enrich themselves and their supporters, then used those riches to enhance their military powero Controls on trade served to manipulate the terms of trade, the prices paid for imports and received for exportso The goal of mercantilism policies were to turn the terms of trade against the colonies and in favor of the mother country- “ Wealth is power, and power is wealth” –Hobbes- Peace of Westphaliao Ended the Thirty Years’ Waro Stabilized the borders of the belligerents and attempted to resolve some of the religious conflicts that had complicated their relationso Regarded as the beginning of the modern system of states, which are expected to respect one another’s sovereignty - Sovereignty is the expectation that states have legal and political supremacy within their territorial borders- Hegemony is the predominance of one nation-state over others- Pax Britannicao Century from 1815 to 1914o “British Peace”o Europeans used military and economic means to tighten and expand their control over people in their colonies and other poor countries- Colonists and the Colonizedo Fante Confederation Several local governments in what would


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