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FSU INR 2002 - Study Guide

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1. What are International Law and International Norms? How are they formed and how do they relate to each other? Why do they matter? What are TANs and what role do they play in international relations?• International law is a body of rules that bind states and other agents in the world politics in their relations with one another and is considered to have the status of law. o Examples: Ottawa Convention (use of weapons), Geneva Conventions (treatment of POW), Law of the Seao Can either be hard or soft laws. Determined by: Obligation, precision and delegationo Formed by two ways:  Customary International Law: slowly over time The second is international treaties, duly negotiated and ratified by states. o Why does it matter: An essential tool in managing conflicts and cooperation. States usually comply with International law. Laws are usually not precise enough to deal with all interactions. The selections problem of states making and agreeing to laws only that serves their interests. Compliance constituencies have interests in ensuring that their governments follow the rules.  International norms are standards of behavior for actors with a given identity; norms define what actions are right or appropriate under particular circumstances. Norms are often singular rules, disconnected from any larger body of rules, and can contradict secondary rules, especially sovereignty. o Three types of norms:  Constitutive: define who is a legitimate or appropriate actor under what circumstance. Very broad. Procedural: how decisions should be made. Consensus or majority ruled. Regulative: govern how the behavior of actors in their interactions with others. Most common kind.o Formed by: must be accepted as morally right and appropriate by a sufficiently large proportions of a population. Typically begin with norm entrepreneurs. o Why do they matter: They redefine interests and by changing their interactions. The boomerang model shows how TANS being pressure from other governments to change their own government. International norms and laws are related by: They are both international rules that govern states. They are growing in importance because of globalization. o Law: countries accept the binding agreemento Norms: shared understanding TANs are a set of individuals and nongovernmental organizations acting in pursuit of a normative objective. TANs promote norms to alter interest and change interactions at the individual and state levels. o Examples: International and domestic NGO’s involved in research and advocacy, local social movements, foundations and other philanthropies, media, churches, trade unions and consumer. o Why do they matter:o TANs as Endorsers: inform the legislators and voters. They help with cooperation.o TANS as monitors: can monitor if states comply with international laws and norms.1. What are human rights and why are they abused? Why do countries sign human rights treaties and are these treaties effective?o Human Rights: The rights possessed by all individuals by virtue of being human, regardless of their status as citizens of particular states or members of a group or organization. o Example: At the genocide conventions: first piece of hard international law.o Defined in the UNs article 55- UDHR (defined in the vocab). Split into 2 separate documents: International Bill of Rights: ICCPR and ICESCRo Amnesty International (AI): the worlds leading human rights organization.o They are controversial because even though they are universal different states have different promote different rights to different extents.o Nonderogable rights: rights that cant be suspended at any timeo Prisoners of conscience: imprisoned for peaceful expressions of their beliefso Why are they abused: If they cant afford to or control their military and police. In defense of national security. When they believe a group is allied with a foreign power ( red scare), To preserve their own rule.o The weaker the government the more abuse of rights. Especially in multiparty dictatorships.o Why do countries sign human rights treaties: o To lock in domestic political reform. Usually used by weaker democracies because established democracies already have their own protections in constitutions.o They are encouraged to do so by rewards provided by others: being able to join the EU or NATO.o Moral and Philosophical Motivation:o Self interest motivation: if other countries have problems and civil wars they may spread and labor rights help trade protectionism.o Are the treaties effective?o Not very effective, especially with governments mainly hurting their own citizens. o The ratification of treaties is associated with worse rather than better practices. There is no one to enforce them so its more of a taking a position on the issue but not changing behavior. Also actual democracies sign the treaties and the multiparty dictatorships sign them because of social pressure so it still appears great majorities who sign the treaties break the rules. o New protections: Transitional Justice, individuals petition, universal jurisdiction, the international criminal court, using RTAs.1. What is civil war? How does it differ from interstate war? How does the bargaining theory explain civil war?o Civil War is: an armed conflict that occurs between organized actors within states and that meets some minimum for severity. o Causalities occurred on all sides: state and non-state actoro Over 1000 causalitieso Use same tools to explain interstate wars: the use of violence by actors to pursue political interests. Also the effects of civil war are international.o Usually caused by grievances or greedo Dissatisfied groups have 3 options: leave the state, change the policies, or take over the state.o Three types of conflict: territory, policy, regime. o Territory conflict: separatist wants to create an independent state on the territory of the existing state. Irredentist wants to detach their territory to the one next door. o Country level factors:o The type of regime: can rebels express their grievances through democracy better? Or autocracies can repress rebel groups better?o The wealth: poor countries experience more civil war.o International Factors: o rebel groups may get foreign aid because of shared interestso Irredentismo The hope the rebel group replaces current governo Proxy Wars: when two opposing states fight by supporting opposite sides in a war. (ex: in cold war)o Civil Wars


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