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NU PSYC 1101 - Study Guide

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Psychology Study Guide Jessica Thompson Cumulative Material Wilheim Wundt 1879 o o o o o o o o o First quantitative psychology experiment people aware of ball hitting table Beginning of modern psychology Behavorism Popularized by B F Skinner in 1950s and 1960s Psychology should be based on study of observable behavior Maslow Humanistic Psychology Every person has a strong desire to realize their full potential Direct contradiction to behaviorist idea of people being a consequence of external stimuli Level of analysis perspective from which a problem or question is studied Ie evolutionary psychodynamic behaviorist Statistics Variability Averages derived from scores with low variability are more reliable than averages based on scores with high variability Central Limit Theorem means drawn from any pop will be normal if sample is large Standard error of the mean SEM standard deviation of the mean Means are descriptive statistics Statistical tests determine if means are different by chance or because of a factor Correlations Linear regression across data from two parameters Positive as one parameter goes up the other goes up o o o o o o o o o o Negative as one parameter goes up the other goes down Coefficient r ranges from 1 to 1 closer to 1 stronger correlation Best Data large sample low variability unbiased sample Common Sense Hindsight bias seeing an event as predictable in retrospect while it was not at the time Overconfidence leads us to overly trust our common sense Traits needed for good science Curiosity innate desire for truth Skepticism doubt that which is not supported by unbiased direct observation Humble ability to disregard our own preconceived notion of truth Scientific Method Theory set of principles that predicts behaviors and events Hypothesis testable prediction implied by a theory Darwin s natural selection is most widely accepted biological theory Should be skeptical of experiment results not consistent with it Descriptive correlational and experimental methods to test hypotheses Descriptive case study one individual in depth may not be representative of entire pop survey many cases in less depth difficult to survey random pop Naturalistic observation records behaviors in natural environment without subject sampling random pop knowledge Experiments Way to reveal causal relationship implied by correlational studies Double blind neither scientist nor subject knows grouping Psychobiology o o o Rene Descartes Nervous System Everything psychological derives from something biological Mind you and brain are not the same cogito ergo sum Communication across a synapse is chemical via neurotransmitters Many different neurotransmitters amino acids gases polypeptides Acetylcholine messenger used by every motor neuron Opiates and endorphins alleviate pain and induce euphoria Synthetic neurotransmitters Agonists bind to receptor and mimic effect of normal NT oCell believes it has been stimulated Antagonists block neurotransmitter s effect by binding to receptor o Endocrine System System of glands secreting hormones impacting nervous function Hormones work over long distances to control hunger sex anger Endocrine slow and unspecific Nervous fast and specific oHormones linger in blood cid 224 prolonged feelings Pituitary Gland Adrenal Glands o The Brain Branch off of and largely controlled by hypothalamus oSecretes many hormones controlling diverse functions Release epinephrine and norep controlling fight or flight Most info about brain processes come from studying behavior of people with brain injuries on certain parts Brain imaging techniques Old Brain EEG oldest PET traditional MRI anatomical fMRI neural activity Instinctual and subconscious brain functions breathing rest feeding Medulla bottom of brainstem heartbeat and breathing Pons coordinate movements Reticular formation network of nerves from medulla to thalamus Thalamus all sensory info besides olfactory passes through Cerebellum many basic survival tasks time judgment coordination Limbic System hippocampus and amygdala oAmygdala processing and memory of emotions oHypothalamus regulates thirst hunger and sexual behavior Dopamine involved in feeling of reward New Brain Cerebral cortex of neural connections in brain are in the new brain oPerforms complex functions oFrontal lobe seems to be basis of you oMotor cortex back of frontal lobe Topographical map of body Larger areas for body areas requiring more precise control o Sensory cortex anterior parietal lobe Topographical representation of body upside down o Auditory complex temporal lobe above ear oVisual Cortex Arranged in maps scaled by what is Each eye divided in half crossing over to opposite side of brain ie Left side of each eye goes to left side of brain oAssociation areas oLanguage areas Receive direct sensory input or send direct motor output Frontal lobe nearly all association areas Broca s area frontal lobe speech generation Wernicke s area temporal lobe coherent speech Angular gyrus comprehension of language Specialization and integration define patterning of brain Plasticity ability of CNS to change as a result of insult or experience oBrain can reorganize ie Blind develop keener hearing The Divided Brain oTwo of all brain features one on each side excluding language oCorpus callosum nerve connecting both sides of brain Two words flash on screen Will report word on right Will point at word on left oLeft Brain reasonable Language oRight Brain animal brain Creativity thematic inferences The Mind o Consciousness o Dual Processing Blindsight Behaviorists denied relevance of internal mental states Evolutionary psychology consciousness gives us competitive advantage Depending on where info is processed we are either consciously aware or not Visual perception track enables us to be aware of world Visual action moment to moment actions w o conscious thought Conscious track o Attention To solve the hard stuff serial processing Selective conscious awareness focuses on limited part of full experience Very hard to split attention multitask Inattentional blindness distraction Change blindness failure to recognize change in environment o Circadian Rhythm We operate on 24 hour clock body temp rises in morning falls at night Body resets its internal clock depending on light clock is in the suprachiasmatic nucleus SCN of the hypothalamus otriggers release of melatonin from pineal gland Sleep conscious brain vanishes Sleep cycle lasts appr 90 minutes oStage 1 vivid


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