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FSU ANT 3212 - FINAL EXAM

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FINAL EXAM REVIEW GUIDEANT3212 PEOPLES OF THE WORLDDR. AMY C. KOWALTHE DISCIPLINE OF ANTHROPOLOGY• Anthropology: the study of human kind, culture, behavior, evolution, societies over time and across cultures. Four subfields: oPhysical: Biological): evolutionary time scale (OLDER). Millions of years ago -- skeletal systemsoCultural: contemporary peoples. Go to people, live with them, and take notes.oArchaeology: people's material remains (OLD). Past → present. Since modern humanoLinguistics: study of languages. Evolutionary development, origins. Speech apparatus. Reconstruct pre-/historic languages. Modern language, socio- linguistics -- socially.• Ethnography: a qualitative research design aimed at exploring cultural phenomena. The resulting field study or a case report reflects the knowledge and the system of meanings in the lives of a cultural group. An ethnography is a means to represent graphically and in writing, the culture of a people.• Essentials of fieldwork: Objectives: Study how people live on a daily basis, what do they use to accomplish tasks? Ultimate question: What is the meaning of their lives/actions? Meaning behind people's behavior. 3 things anthropologists study – Values: things you abide by. Rules, customs, what's important. Conveyance: behavior, actions, body language, expression, dress. Symbols: something that represents something else (language, etc.). Research design:o Formulation -- hypothesis, background research, permissions, money (grant proposal)o Data Collection -- field work, observing, and participation -- pictures, notes, and recordings.o Analysis and interpretation -- comparative method to other societies.o Conclusions and reformation -- why the people behaved as they did, new questions.o Presentation -- to colleagues, grant writers, the public, and the people written about. Publish (book, journal article), academic conferences = instant feedback.•Culture: shared and learned understandings of a group of people and their behavior. Taught/learned, not acquired genetically. Behavior, language, morals, ideals, etc. There are no cultural universals.Culture: shared and learned understandings of a group of people and their behavior. Taught/learned, not acquired genetically. Behavior, language, morals, ideals, etc.Cultural relativism: you cannot judge another culture based on your own cultural standings. No one is superior or inferior to another. You should evaluate and describe a culture's behavior according to its own history. Extreme -- idea that cultures should not be compared to each other. Not now believed. We now compare cultures but recognize when over-stepping bounds. We want to know largely about human-kind in general.Evolution: Societies don’t have to evolve through all four levels. There is no need to change or adapt when existing bands, tribes, and chiefdoms are currently surviving as they are. However, they can change if they choose the luxuries of state societies. Societies at "lower levels" aren’t inferior or more primitive than those at "upper levels.” Not all societies fit into this classification scheme -- these are generalizations. Not all members adhere to the definitions. There is no “primitive" or "inferior" in anthropology. Hadza hunter-gatherers are the best adapted for what they do. We could not survive or thrive in their environment. They don't have complex systems like us, but they are not lesser-than us.Participant observation: a research strategy in which the researcher goes to the field, lives with the people for some time, and participates in their activities in order to know and feel their culture.Informants: a person who supplies information, a consultant, a witnessAdaptation: the social, technical, and ideological means by which people adjust to the world that impinges on them, both seen and unseen.1Institution: a structure and mechanism of social order and cooperation governing the behavior of a set of individuals within a given human collectivity.Assimilation: when one ethnic group absorbs another, so that the cultural traits of the assimilated group become indistinguishable.Real behavior: what is really going on? Anthropologists are interested in this and ideal behavior.Ideal behavior: what we think we should be doing and what we want others to believe we are doing. Emic: Relating to or denoting an approach to the study or description of a particular language or culture in terms of its internal elements and their functioning rather than in terms of any existing external scheme. Of or pertaining to the analysis of a cultural system or its features from the perspective of a participant in that cultureEtic: Relating to or denoting an approach to the study or description of a particular language or culture that is general, nonstructural, and objective in its perspective. Of or pertaining to analysis of a culture from the perspective on one who is not a participant in that cultureCulture shock: negative reaction when someone experiences introduction into a culture vastly different from their own. Could cause mental breakdown (severe case)Ethnocentrism: belief in the superiority of one's own ethnic group. Harming others - genocide, etc. Not accepting of other cultures.Cultural system: the interaction of different elements of culture. Anthropologists classify cultures in 4 parts. Social, political, economic, ideology.Subsistence: the action and means of maintaining or supporting oneself. Denoting or relating to production at a level sufficient only for one's own use or consumption, without any surplus for tradeWorld view: the framework of ideas and beliefs through which an individual, group or culture interprets the world and interacts with it.Social organization: the people in a society considered as a system organized by a characteristic pattern of relationships. Family/kinship group, age, gender, job specialization, etc. How do people group themselves?Economic organization: Basic needs -- food, shelter, and clothing. Yanomamo: hunt, horticulture, gathering. How does one meet their subsistence?Ideology: The ideas and manner of thinking characteristic of a group, social class, or individual. A set of ideas that constitutes one's goals, expectations, and actions. An ideology can be thought of as a comprehensive vision, as a way of looking at things (compare worldview). Religious behaviors, beliefs, laws, customs, etc. What as their religious organization like?Political organization: means of


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