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ANT3212 Exam 4 The Hadza History Technique Marlowe s Evolutionary Approach Archeology Hunters and Gatherers Habitat Economics Preservation Frank Marlowe s Approach Not your traditional ethnography Evolutionary theory o Hadza hunter gatherers distinctiveness One of last foraging societies on Earth Quantify cultural anthropological research Location of East Africa is where first hominin species evolved Environmental adaptation study Evolutionary Theory Change over time Natural selection o Selection and inheritance Some traits are desirable in certain cultural environments These traits are inherited genetic code Reproductive Success RS passing one s genes to reproductive offspring o Hamilton s Rule o Altruism you will help those that you share common genes with kinship alliances Game Theory Marlowe s Objective The study of rational behavior among interdependent agents o Agents have a common interest to make the pie as large as possible but o Agents have competing interests to maximize their own share of the pie o An agent s rational decisions require anticipating rivals responses o These expectations are not perfect so uncertainty is a necessary feature of games S ee how much we can understand by reference to the habitat and mode of subsistence 2010 8 o Understand what Early human behavior modern hunters and gatherers relationship between culture and ecology o Evolution of modern human behavior o Why the Hadza Location still foraging outdoor living is observable o Quantify their behavior measure health work efficiency food Brief Overview of Human Evolution Split from common ancestor of chimps 6 million years ago Australopithecines 4 2 million years ago Homo our genus 2 4 million years ago Homo sapiens first appear about 200 000 years ago in Africa Australopithecines Small brained chimp sized Small bodied Bipedal A afarensis Lucy Lived in eastern and southern Africa Homo habilis Homo erectus Neanderthals First tool makers probably Although new evidence suggests Australopithecines made tools Small bodied and but brains are bigger than Australopithecines Larger brained not quite us Larger bodied Very efficient walker runner Spread throughout Africa and into Asia and Europe H erectus expanded tool use used fire hunted Homo neanderthalensis Successful cold adapted species survived from 600 000 to 30 000 years ago Lived in Europe and Near East Thick bodied Large brained Genetic evidence shows some interbreeding with humans Had symbolic culture and ability for language Anatomically Modern Humans AMH Modern Homo sapiens Compared to other hominin species we are gracile bodied slim big brained small gutted tool using social generalized diet extended growth and development Genetic studies show all humans are descended from a small group of humans in Africa 200 000 years ago Young and relatively genetically uniform species Very Brief History of modern Humanity H sapiens anatomically modern o Spread around the world o Africa 100 000 years ago o 60 000 years ago in Asia and Europe o Australia in Europe by 45 000 years ago o The Americas by probably 18 000 years ago All humans hunted and gathered until 10 000 years ago By 10 000 12 000 years ago first food production farming with multiple independent beginnings Human body is still adapted to a hunter gatherer lifestyle What is Modern Behavior Tool complexity Art ochre and figurines Broad exploitation of resources like modern hunter gatherers Long distance exchange Bone tools Earliest clear evidence is around 60 70 kya but certain elements may come earlier Blombos Cave S Africa 70 kya Earliest evidence of fully modern behavior next earliest is Europe 40 kya Fauna eaten include shellfish and sea mammals seals and dolphins Shell beads Incised pieces of ochre Bone tools Archeology History Hadza live is one of the most hominin rich fossil areas of the world o Great Rift Valley Olduvai Gorge 40 km north Prior to 3 kya all in Tanzania were H G Prehistoric contact after 3 kya o Tanzania h g populace Somalian Ethiopian herders Bantu farmers Sudanese cattle o Iraqw maize farmers Datoga Isanzu Sukuma pastoralists Tanzanian onion farmers herders Current relations Settlement Attempts British colonial settlements encourage farming Villages and schools established Missionaries provide food Failed attempts o Authority abuse o Disease o Drought o Food provisions halt In the end they return to foraging Hunters and Gatherers Hadza Hadzabe o what they call themselves Genetically distinct from other close H G groups Linguistically distinct o Hadzane click language o No writing Similar societies like the Kung Ju hoansi or San Languages Most Hadza know more than one langauge o Hadzane Click consonants 3 types Dental Alveopalatal lateral o Swahili o Isanzu Lingua franca What does Marlowe speak Bantu language o Kiswahili Environment Lake Eyasi salt water o Environment varies Dunduiya Tli ika Mangola Sipunga o Population o Resources Economic Subsistence Variety Seasons Dry June Nov and Rainy Dec May Primarily Savannah Woodland habitat rocky hills scrub brush palm forest marsh woodland gallery forest o Four locations variations on landscape Water scarce why In the rainy season drinking water comes from pools of water on top of big flat rocks and from running streams o Hunting and gathering wild foods o Foraging and guarding crops from wild animals o Government work scouts development o Tourism Cultural Conservation Records of Hadza behavior in 20th 21st centuries reveal stable culture o Population increased o Camp size mobility diet mating stable Camps of 28 people 3 weeks o Technology still bow and arrow o 93 diet is foraged o Do recognize visitors now Why Remain H G Woodburn Marlowe o Dislike delayed reciprocity o Poor land for crops marginal environment o Tsetse flies limit pastoralists o Underdeveloped country o Hadzaland is surrounded by National Parks o Hadza have a low key response to outsiders Social Religious Organization Settlements Camps o Small size 30 o Residence is fluid constant fission fusion o Named after the most senior male o Seasonal Larger during dry season centered around permanent Smaller during wet season more water holes spread out o Segregation by increases with camp size more bickering and distractions Mobility Mobile movement determined by men and women consensus o 6 5 avg times per year 4 20 rotational Movement determined by o Proximity to ripe berries o Local resource depletion o Drinking water depletion o A death at camp No territory

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FSU ANT 3212 - Exam 4: The Hadza

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