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ANT3212 Exam 4: The HadzaHistory & Technique- Marlowe’s Evolutionary Approach- Archeology- Hunters and Gatherers- Habitat- Economics- PreservationFrank Marlowe’s Approach- Not your traditional ethnography- Evolutionary theoryo Hadza hunter gatherers distinctiveness One of last foraging societies on Earth Location of East Africa is where first hominin species evolved Environmental adaptation study Quantify cultural anthropological researchEvolutionary Theory- Change over time- Natural selectiono Selection and inheritance Some traits are desirable in certain cultural environments These traits are inherited (genetic code)- Reproductive Success RS - passing one’s genes to reproductive offspringo Hamilton’s Ruleo Altruism - you will help those that you share common genes with (kinship & alliances)Game Theory- The study of rational behavior among interdependent agentso Agents have a common interest to make the pie as large as possible, buto Agents have competing interests to maximize their own share of the pie.o An agent’s rational decisions require anticipating rivals’ responseso These expectations are not perfect, so uncertainty is a necessary feature of gamesMarlowe’s Objective- “[S]ee how much we can understand by reference to the habitat and mode of subsistence.” (2010:8)o Understand what? Early human behavior, modern hunters and gatherers, relationship between culture and ecologyo Evolution of modern human behavioro Why the Hadza? Location, still foraging, outdoor living is observableo Quantify their behavior: measure health, work efficiency, foodBrief Overview of Human Evolution- Split from common ancestor of chimps - 6 million years ago- • Australopithecines - 4 – 2 million years ago- • Homo - our genus, 2.4 million years ago- • Homo sapiens - first appear about 200,000 years ago in AfricaAustralopithecines- Small brained (chimp sized)- Small bodied- Bipedal- A. afarensis (Lucy)- Lived in eastern and southern AfricaHomo habilis- First tool makers (probably)- Although new evidence suggests Australopithecines made tools.- Small bodied and but brains are bigger than Australopithecines. Homo erectus- Larger brained (not quite us)- Larger bodied- Very efficient walker/runner- Spread throughout Africa and into Asia and Europe- H. erectus expanded tool use, used fire, hunted Neanderthals- Homo neanderthalensis - Successful, cold adapted species -survived from 600,000 to 30,000 years ago.- Lived in Europe and Near East- Thick bodied- Large brained- Genetic evidence shows some interbreeding with humans.- Had symbolic culture and ability for language.Anatomically Modern Humans (AMH)- Modern Homo sapiens- Compared to other hominin species we are gracile bodied (slim), big brained, small gutted, tool using, social, generalized diet, extended growth and development.- Genetic studies show all humans are descended from a small group of humans in Africa 200,000years ago.- Young and relatively genetically uniform species. (Very) Brief History of (modern) Humanity- H. sapiens (anatomically modern)o Spread around the worldo Africa 100,000 years agoo 60,000 years ago in Asia and Europeo Australia in Europe by 45,000 years agoo The Americas by probably 18,000 years ago. - All humans hunted and gathered until 10,000 years ago.- By 10,000 – 12,000 years ago: first food production (farming) (with multiple independent beginnings).- Human body is still adapted to a hunter-gatherer lifestyleWhat is Modern Behavior?- Tool complexity- Art (ochre and figurines)- Broad exploitation of resources (like modern hunter gatherers)- Long distance exchange- Bone tools- Earliest clear evidence is around 60-70 kya but certain elements may come earlierBlombos Cave, S. Africa 70 kya- Earliest evidence of fully “modern” behavior; next earliest is Europe 40 kya - Fauna eaten include shellfish and sea mammals (seals and dolphins)- Shell beads- Incised pieces of ochre- Bone toolsArcheology & History- Hadza live is one of the most hominin rich fossil areas of the worldo Great Rift Valley Olduvai Gorge 40 km north- Prior to 3 kya all in Tanzania were H-G- Prehistoric contact (after 3 kya)o Tanzania h/g populace, Somalian & Ethiopian herders, Bantu farmers, Sudanese cattle herders - Current relationso Iraqw maize farmers, Datoga & Isanzu & Sukuma pastoralists, Tanzanian onion farmersSettlement Attempts- British colonial settlements encourage farming- Villages and schools established- Missionaries provide food- Failed attempts:o Authority abuseo Diseaseo Droughto Food provisions halt- In the end they return to foragingHunters and Gatherers- Hadza/Hadzabe o what they call themselves- Genetically distinct from other close H-G groups- Linguistically distincto Hadzane (click language)o No writing - Similar societies like the !Kung (Ju/’hoansi or San)Languages- Most Hadza know more than one langauge o Hadzane  Click consonants 3 types:- Dental- Alveopalatal- lateral o Swahili Lingua francao Isanzu  Bantu language- What does Marlowe speak?o KiswahiliEnvironment- Lake Eyasi (salt water)o Environment varies Seasons – Dry (June-Nov) and Rainy (Dec – May) Primarily Savannah – Woodland habitat- rocky hills, scrub brush, palm forest, marsh woodland, gallery forest o Four locations – variations on landscape Dunduiya  Tli’ika  Mangola  Sipunga o Populationo Resources  Water - scarce why? In the rainy season, drinking water comes from pools of water on top of big flat rocks and from running streamsEconomic & Subsistence- Varietyo Hunting and gathering wild foodso Foraging and guarding crops from wild animalso Government work - scouts, developmento TourismCultural Conservation- Records of Hadza behavior in 20th-21st centuries reveal stable cultureo Population increasedo Camp size, mobility, diet, mating stable Camps of 28 people, 3 weekso Technology still bow and arrowo >93% diet is foragedo Do recognize visitors nowWhy Remain H-G- Woodburn:o Dislike delayed reciprocity- Marlowe:o Poor land for crops (marginal environment)o Tsetse flies limit pastoralistso Underdeveloped countryo Hadzaland is surrounded by National Parkso Hadza have a low-key response to outsidersSocial & Religious OrganizationSettlements- Campso Small size (30) o Residence is fluid – constant fission/fusiono Named after the most senior maleo Seasonal Larger during dry season – centered around permanent Smaller during wet season – more water holes

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FSU ANT 3212 - Exam 4: The Hadza

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