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Final Study Guide ANT 3212 The Discipline of Anthropology What is anthropology Know the four subfields and what each of them do physical cultural archaeology anthropological linguistics Anthropology the study of human kind culture behavior evolution and societies over time and across cultures Physical anthropology biology evolutionary time scale genetics evolution studied through biological remains skeletons dead people health status medicine Cultural anthropology contemporary peoples interact watch view humans first hand Archaeology studying people through their material and remains Linguistics study of languages human language studied from an evolutionary stand point How language began speech patterns through brain patterns What is an ethnography What is the difference between ethnocentrism and cultural relativism Ethnography a descriptive work produced from research in the study and recording of a culture Ethnocentrism judging a culture based on your own standards Believing one culture is superior to another Extreme case trying to change another culture based on what you think is right not accepting of other cultures Cultural relativism term founded by German anthropologist Franz Boas you cannot judge another culture based on your own cultural standings None are superior or inferior to another Each culture can be explained through its own history Extreme idea that cultures should not be compared to each other What are the essentials of fieldwork methods ethics Methodology participant observation Participate in activities to have firsthand experience Do surveys learn vocabulary 5 steps to anthropological research design 1 Formulation formulate hypothesis by doing prior research Get a permit funding and permission by chief of people 2 Data collection field work Participating in whatever they do Collect pictures recordings observations etc 3 Analysis and interpretation using comparative method Compare what was learned to other societies Classify organize data 4 Conclusions and reformation answer questions form conclusion generate new questions for future research 5 Presentation present results to colleagues by ethnography article dissertation thesis film etc present to grant writers general public through websites social network magazine or exhibit Also present to the people you studied by making it available to them translate it Ethics responsibilities to report back to studied people Don t bring harm to them by disrespecting their culture how you are portraying them to the public Protect the people by giving them an alias don t tell exact location What are cultural universals paradoxes of culture and definitions of culture Culture shared and learned understanding of a group of people and their behavior It is taught learned not acquired genetically Behavior language morals ideals etc Terms Participant observation participate in activities to get 1st hand experience Do this by observing surveys and learning vocab Key informants guide and introduce you to the people They share information with you and help translate Emic a view of the culture from within Etic a view of the culture from outside Ideal behavior how you re supposed to act based on what your morals tell you Real behavior how you really act Culture shock negative reaction when someone experiences an introduction to a culture vastly different Could cause mental breakdown anxiety attack high stress levels etc Assimilation when a dominant culture absorbs another culture to such degree that the assimilating group becomes socially indistinguishable Institution there are four institutions on how societies organize themselves social organization economic political and ideology Most focus on social and ideological institutions How the families and tribes are organized singers leaders audience for events groups religion etc political and economic institutions are secondary Subsistence the standard of living or wage that provides only bare necessities of life Culture system there are four parts Social family kinship group age gender job specialization Political civil laws justice system defense system laws Economic basic needs food shelter clothing Ideology religious behaviors beliefs laws customs Kinship basis of society s social organization method of organizing people defining who is eligible to marry defines special relationships among people Organized along lines of descent according to gender and age Bilateral bilineal kinship system organized according around you Patrilineal through father s blood line Ex Yanomamo Matrilineal through mother s blood line Ex Mescalero Unilineal patrilineal Yanomamo matrilineal Mescalero Affinal relationship by marriage or ties other than those of blood Consanguine relationship by blood or by a common ancestor Holistic a type of ethnography that is comprehensive deals with all aspects of study and the fieldwork objective is to know as much about a culture as possible holism is the theory that natural systems physical biological chemical social economic mental linguistic etc and their properties in which should be viewed as wholes not as collections of parts So holistic signifies to incorporate the concept of holism in theory or practice Focused an ethnography which focuses on the singular deals with one primary topic and the fieldwork objective is focused on primary topic although you may learn more from other areas of culture Endogamy marriage within one s descent group Exogamy marriage outside one s descent group Elman Service s classification in order from smallest to largest Band the simplest form of human society A band generally consists of a small kin group no larger than an extended family or clan it has been defined as consisting of no more than 100 individuals Tribe societies organized largely on the basis of kinship especially corporate descent groups is viewed historically or developmentally as a social group existing before the development of or outside of states The Yanomamo are a tribal society Chiefdom a political economy that organized regional populations through a hierarchy of the chief a form of social organization more complex than a tribe or band society and less complex than a state State an autonomous political unit encompassing many communities within its territory having a centralized government with the power to collect taxes draft men for work or war and decree and enforce laws The Mescalero Apache What are rituals and myths in anthropology What purposes do they

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FSU ANT 3212 - Final Study Guide

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