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Unit 4 Lectures: The Hadzabe: One of the Last Hunters and GathersHunters and Gatherers:Frank Marlowe’s ApproachEvolutionary TheoryMarlowe’s ObjectiveEnvironmentLanguagesArchaeology & HistoryEconomics & SubsistenceSettlement AttemptsCultural ConservationSocial & Religious Organization – Status, Gender, Age RitualSettlementsGender GroupsKinship SystemLife Stages and ActivitiesAdulthoodReligious PracticesBeliefsHadza and DeathSocial LifeSummary Social and ReligionEconomic Organization: Material Culture ForagingLife without PossessionsHadza Technology Traditions & TradeForagersCentral-Place ProvisionersGathered and Hunted FoodsHunting and Gathering TechniquesHadza SubsistenceFamily Life among the Hadza – Life History, Mating, ParentingHumans of the PastHadza – Foraging ExampleHadza LifespanParenthood in HadzalandEnd of LifespanPast Human ForagersCultural Comparisons: Cooperation & Reciprocity, Cross-Cultural DiversityHadza & Course SummariesTypes of Food SharingWhy Cooperate?Hunter-Gatherer SocietiesChanges in Hadza LandsNotes on Frank Marlowe’s The Hadza Hunter-Gatherers of TanzaniaChapter 1: The Hadza and Evolutionary TheoryChapter 2: Habitat and HistoryChapter 3: Social Organization, Beliefs, and PracticesChapter 4: Material CultureChapter 5: ForagingChapter 6: Life HistoryChapter 7: MatingChapter 8: ParentingChapter 9: Cooperation and Food-SharingChapter 10: The Median Foragers – Humans in Cross-Species PerspectiveAfterward – The Hadza Present and FuturePeoples of the World Final Exam GuideUnit 4 Lectures: The Hadzabe: One of the Last Hunters and GathersMarlowe’s book on the Hadza is an ethnography focused on economics and subsistence.Location: central-east Africa. Population 1,000 total – Marlow contacted/studied about ½.Hunters and Gatherers:• Hadza/Hadzabe• Ju/’hoansio Botswana and Namibia to south.o Richard Lee: foundation for research of hunters and gatherers.• Genetically and linguistically distinct.• Similar societies.Frank Marlowe’s Approach• Not traditional ethnography.• Evolutionary theory: Hadza hunter gatherers distinctivenesso One of last foraging societies on Eartho Location of East Africa is where first hominin species evolved.o Environmental adaptation studyo Quantify cultural anthropological research.Evolutionary Theory• Change over time: evolution, biology/genetic changes.• Natural selection: selection and inheritance.o Some traits are desirable in certain cultural environments.o These traits are inherited through genetic code.• Reproductive Success (RS): passing one’s genes to reproduce offspring.o The advantage of traits is a higher RS.o Altruism: you will help those that you share common genes with (kinship and alliances). Behavior you do to help others – sharing food.Marlowe’s Objective• “[S]ee how much we can understand by reference to the habitat and mode of subsistence.”o Understand early human behavior, modern hunters and gatherers relationship between culture and ecology. Environment is the strongest influence on one’s cultural behaviors.o Why Hadza: Location (E Africa) similar to what it was like in prehistory, still foraging (90% diet is vegetation) despite contact with modern society (agriculturalist, pastoralists), outdoor living is observable – can see everything they do.o Quantify behavior: measure health (age, subsistence level, muscle tone/mass, calories consumed, energy spent), work efficiency, food. Pedometers – walking distance, caloriesEnvironment• Varies – rainy and dry season.• Communities bordered by Lake Eyas – North of Hadzaland.• 4 locations/groups: population 1,000 peopleo Dunduiyao Tli’ikao Mangolao Sipunga• Resources and Weather:o Savannas, rocky hills, scrub brush, palm forest, marsh woodland, gallery forest  large amount of seasonality and variation for plants/animals – plenty of options to hunt/forage.o Water is scarce: lake is saltwater. Rely on rainwaters and water holes  subject to draught, water from fruit and meat.Languages• Hadzane: click consonants, sounds carry meanings.o For talk amongst themselves.• Swahili: Lingua francao Common language used to communicate with others about trade, business.• Isanzu: Bantu language.o Used with neighbors.Marlowe has never learned Hadzane – speaks with them in Swahili.Archaeology & History• Great Rift Valley history: Olduvai Gorge 40 km north. 3.6 million years of human ancestry here.• Art: petroglyphs, not modern.• Prehistoric contact: Tanzania hunter gatherer populace, Somalian and Ethiopian herders, Bantu farmers, Sudanese cattle herders.o Hadza work as watchmen and guards by some ranches and farms, yet have continued as hunter gatherers.• Current relations: Iraqw maize farmers, Datoga & Isanzu & Sukuma pastoralists, Tanzanian onion farmers.Economics & Subsistence• Variety:o hunting and gathering wild foodso foraging and guarding crops from wild animalso government work – scouts development – know areao tourism: eco-tourism: visiting places “off the map” Ethno-tourism: seeing people like Hadza – ceremonies, hunts, etc.• Paid to be observed. Don’t produce anything to sell tourists.Settlement Attempts• British colonial settlements encourage farming.• Villages and schools established.• Missionaries provide food: earn money, work, and religion.• Failed attempts:o Authority abuse: didn’t pay them as promised, treated them poorly, etc.o disease: Hadza have no immunities to European diseaseso Drought: crops fail  no more foodo Food provisions halt: after living there for a while, they stop feeding them  they leave.• In the end they return to foraging.Cultural Conservation• Records of Hadza behavior in 20th-21st centuries reveal stable culture.o Population increased.o Camp size, mobility, diet, mating stable. Camps of 28 people, move every 3 weeks.o technology still bow and arrowo >93% of diet is foraged.o Now recognize visitors• Moving: limited possessions, no food, no luxury, must carry children.• Must understand how cultural anthropological data can be quantified.Social & Religious Organization – Status, Gender, Age RitualSettlements• Small size (28) and seasonal (dry is larger – time of visiting).• No political leader (contrasts with Yanomamo): mobile – movement determined by men and women consensus. Movement about every 3 weeks, average 6.5 times a year (4-20).• Location determined by water hole, plant availability, animals,

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