FSU ANT 3212 - The Discipline of Anthropology

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Final Study Guide ANT 3212The Discipline of AnthropologyWhat is anthropology? Know the four subfields and what each of them do: physical, cultural, archaeology, anthropological linguistics.Anthropology- the study of human kind, culture, behavior, evolution, and societies over time and across cultures.Physical anthropology (biology) – evolutionary time scale; genetics, evolution, studied through biological remains, skeletons, dead people, health status, medicine.Cultural anthropology- contemporary peoples; interact, watch, view humans first hand.Archaeology- studying people through their material and remains.Linguistics- study of languages; human language studied from an evolutionary stand point. How language began, speech patterns through brain patterns.What is an ethnography? What is the difference between ethnocentrism and cultural relativism?Ethnography- a descriptive work produced from research in the study and recording of a culture.Ethnocentrism- judging a culture based on your own standards. Believing one culture is superior to another. Extreme case- trying to change another culture based on what you think is right; not accepting of other cultures.Cultural relativism- term founded by German anthropologist Franz Boas; you cannot judge another culture based on your own cultural standings. None are superior or inferior to another. Each culture can be explained through its own history. Extreme- idea that cultures should not be compared to each other.What are the essentials of fieldwork: methods, ethics?Methodology- participant observation. Participate in activities to have firsthand experience. Do surveys, learn vocabulary.5 steps to anthropological research design:1. Formulation- formulate hypothesis by doing prior research. Get a permit, funding, and permission by chief of people.2. Data collection- field work. Participating in whatever they do. Collect pictures, recordings, observations, etc.3. Analysis and interpretation- using comparative method. Compare what was learned to other societies. Classify/organize data.4. Conclusions and reformation- answer questions, form conclusion, generate new questions for future research.5. Presentation- present results to colleagues by ethnography, article, dissertation, thesis, film, etc. present to grant writers, general public through websites, social network, magazine, or exhibit. Also, present to the people you studied by making it available to them; translate it.Ethics/responsibilities- to report back to studied people. Don’t bring harm to them by disrespecting their culture; how you are portraying them to the public. Protect the people by giving them an alias, don’t tell exact location.What are cultural universals, paradoxes of culture, and definitions of culture?Culture- shared and learned understanding of a group of people and their behavior. It is taught/learned, not acquired genetically. Behavior, language, morals, ideals, etc.TermsParticipant observation- participate in activities to get 1st hand experience. Do this by observing, surveys, and learning vocab. Key informants- guide and introduce you to the people. They share information with you and help translate.Emic- a view of the culture from within.Etic- a view of the culture from outside.Ideal behavior- how you’re supposed to act based on what your morals tell you.Real behavior- how you really act.Culture shock- negative reaction when someone experiences an introduction to a culture vastly different. Could cause mental breakdown, anxiety attack, high stress levels, etc.Assimilation- when a dominant culture absorbs another culture to such degree that the assimilating group becomes socially indistinguishable.Institution- there are four institutions on how societies organize themselves: social organization, economic, political, and ideology. Most focus on social and ideological institutions. How the families and tribes are organized, singers, leaders, audience for events, groups, religion, etc. political and economic institutions are secondary.Subsistence- the standard of living (or wage) that provides only bare necessities of life.Culture system- there are four parts: Social- family/kinship group, age, gender, job specialization Political- civil laws, justice system, defense system, laws Economic- basic needs, food, shelter, clothingIdeology- religious behaviors, beliefs, laws, customs.Kinship- basis of society’s social organization, method of organizing people, defining who is eligible to marry, defines special relationships among people. Organized along lines of descent according to gender and age.Bilateral/bilineal- kinship system organized according/around you.Patrilineal- through father’s blood line. Ex. Yanomamo.Matrilineal- through mother’s blood line. Ex. Mescalero.Unilineal- patrilineal (Yanomamo), matrilineal (Mescalero).Affinal- relationship by marriage or ties other than those of blood.Consanguine- relationship by blood or by a common ancestor.Holistic- a type of ethnography that is comprehensive, deals with all aspects of study, and the fieldwork objective is to know as much about a culture as possible; holism is the theory that natural systems (physical, biological, chemical, social, economic, mental, linguistic, etc.) and their properties in which should be viewed as wholes, not as collections of parts. So, holistic signifies to incorporate the concept of holism in theory or practice.Focused- an ethnography which focuses on the singular, deals with one primary topic, and the fieldwork objective is focused on primary topic although you may learn more from other areas of culture.Endogamy- marriage within one’s descent group.Exogamy- marriage outside one’s descent group.Elman Service’s classification in order from smallest to largest:Band- the simplest form of human society. A band generally consists of a small kin group, no larger than an extended family or clan; it has been defined as consisting of no more than 100 individuals.Tribe- societies organized largely on the basis of kinship, especially corporate descent groups; is viewed historically or developmentally, as a social group existing before the development of, or outside of, states. The Yanomamo are a tribal society.Chiefdom- a political economy that organized regional populations through a hierarchy of the chief; a form of social organization more complex than a tribe or band society, and less complex than a state.State- an autonomous political unit encompassing many communities

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