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FSU ANT 3212 - Hadzas of Tanzania study guide

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Hadzas of Tanzania study guide:notes from booook!!!!!!!• Frank Marlowe began research in 1995• he has been back since then 15 times, for a total of 4 years• Marlowe only speaks a little Hadza language, because he can communicate in their 2nd language• Hadza language= hadzane• 2nd language= Kiswahili• his research entails behavioral sampling, measurement of food acquisition and consumption, skills, preferences, anthropometry, demography, experiments and interviews• natural selection explains how and why evolution occurs• natural selection leads to adaptation• our bodies and behaviors have been shaped by competition between individuals in the past, and we all inherited our genes from the winners of that competition• understanding of evolution was greatly expanded by William Hamilton in 1964, explained why we observe seemingly altruistic behavior in many species; his formula tells us when selection should favor one individual helping another⁃ formula is C < Br• there is a positive selection for a gene that promotes helping relatives (nepotism)• the !Kung became the most well publicized hunter-gatherers and were often used to stand in for our pleistocene ancestors• there are roughly 1,000 hadza• they live in northern tanzania near lake eyasi (which they call balangida)• habitat is primarily savanna woodland, it also includes some rocky hills, scrub brush, palm forest, marshland and some gallery forrest• with the strong winds, they usually stay close to their hearths until 8 am• 4 regions of hadzaland:⁃ mangola : northern region; in the heart of it is an underground spring surrounded by forest with a wide range of plants and species⁃ sipunga : to the south east of magnola; and is a hilly area filled with baobab trees⁃ tli'ika : rocky/wooded range of hills ; area with most remote bush camp; along this border the Hadza had their most extensive contact with outside society in the early 20th century⁃ dunduiya: sparsely populated and abuts the Serengeti national park, ngornogoro conservation area and maswa game reserve; very rich in game; the Hadza from the west that live here (formerly called Wahi) are somewhat isolated from the rest but they maintain one language and ethnic identity• there are about 250 hadza in each region• tindiga= marsh in swahilli• they all live below 1,700 meters, anything above that they complain is too cold• Hadza call THEMSELVES Hadzabe and their language Hadzane• suffix NE is used for language• suffix BE is used for people; hence the root Hadza• first studied by James Woodburn in 1958• only the Hadza speak Hadzane• hadzane has 3 types of click consonants: dental, alvepalatal and lateral• Hadzane is a linguistic isolate• most hadza speak 2 or 3 languages • all but the youngest children and oldest women speak Swahili fluently • when Woodburn(prior anthropologist) arrived, few knew Swahili, but instead knew the language of Isanzu• a recently study concluded that the Hadza and the !Kung of Botswana and Namibia are as genetically divergent as any 2 populations ever tested; the authors concluded that early language must have had clicks, which were lost in other languages • the Hadza have most likely lived in the same area for a very long time• have no written language• the Hadza had the whole area to themselves until the 1950s since the underground spring in Mangola has attracted people from various tribes whom know farm onions there• Hadza live in an area rich in hominid fossils • there are several sites with rock art as well within Hadzaland; yet Hadza do not create rock art• Germans were in control until the end of WWI, when the British took over and made Tanzania (then called Tanganyika) a territory under their rule, Tanganyika became independent in 1961 and Zanzibar joined to form Tanzania in 1964• Hadza population has been increasing slightly since 1900, perhaps because it is rebounding from past declines caused by the Masai expansion in the late 1800's and the deaths during the settlement attempts in the 1960's, 70's, and 80's• among the latter, 300-400 Hadza still live almost exclusively on hunting and gathering wild foods • from time to time, Hadza may work as a game scout or work for the game department; a few have paid government or NGO positions as community development officers• a growing number of Hadza in the Mangola area depend on tourist money, but almost no Hadza have cultivated fields or livestock• Hadza interact mostly with these neighbors: Iraqw, Datoga, Isanzu, and Sukuma; yet none are closely related to the Hadza• currently, most bush-dwelling Hadza interact with the Datoga more than any other group• the earliest known written accounts of the Hadza are by German explorers in the 1890's; the Hadza hid from them so the accounts are not as precise• the earliest known actual first hand written accounts of actually seeing the Hadza are by Otto Dempwolff (1916-1917) and in 1910 by the german geographer Eric Obst⁃ Obst was told by Hadza of wars between the Hadza and Masai; and that they had to always be ready for war with the Isanzu, Iraqw and Masai (and that the Isanzu sometimes captures women and children)• In 1945-1947, British game officer Cooper visited the Hadza on 2 occasions for 10days at a time⁃ said that the Hadza men sometimes cooperated in pairs or threes to drive game into ambush (which they only rarely do today) and that men followed the honey guide birds to find honey (as they do today)⁃ he also indicated that the Hadza are peaceful beings• Marlowe began fieldwork with Nicholas Blurton Jones in 1995• the 1st attempt to settle the Hadza and force them to take up farming was made by the British colonial administration in 1927• the 2nd attempt was also organized by the British colonial admin. in 1939• in 1990, many Hadza were aggressively coerced into settling at Mongo wa Mono but once local gov. officials visited and assured them that they could leave, that is what most of them did ; but there is still a fairly permanent settlement at Mongo wa Mono, which was established as an official gov. registered Hadza village in 1988, the number of people there is about 20-80• although most adult Hadza have lived in a settlement for a few months at some point in time, such experiences have been short-term and have not prevented them from continuing their foraging lifestyle and maintaining their traditional culture•


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