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ANT3212 Peoples of the WorldStudy Guide for Test 2Dr. Amy KowalTHE YANOMAMOA cite that will help review: http://www.indian-cultures.com/cultures/yanomamo-indians/ 1. Elman Service’s classification of band, tribe, chiefdom and state and their attributes. The classifications are in order from smallest to largest. a. Band : the simplest form of human society. A band generally consists of a small kin group, no larger than an extended family or clan; it has been defined as consisting of no more than 100individuals. b. Tribe : societies organized largely on the basis of kinship, especially corporate descent groups (see clan and kinship); is viewed, historically or developmentally, as a social group existing before the development of, or outside of, states. The Yanomamo are a tribal society.c. Chiefdom : is a political economy that organizes regional populations through a hierarchy of the chief(s); a form of social organization more complex than a tribe or a band society, and less complex than a state or a civilization. d. State : an autonomous political unit encompassing many communities within its territory, having a centralized government with the power to collect taxes, draft men for work or war, and decree and enforce lawsBand Tribe Chiefdom StateSocial 24-40 people; not many;some groups are genderand age specific;developed by theirkinship1000 or more people;families live togetherand spend much timetogetherTens of thousands ofpeople; able to seedifferent buildingsizes (some largerthan others, in pppic); changes insocial stratificationare based on: wealth,power, andprestige/fameToo many to count(more thanchiefdoms); a morecentralized anduniform publicadministration(smaller andpopulation is lessdiverse)Political No leader; groupconsensus; everyonehas equal say no matterage and gender; ifthere’s a conflict,resolved by groupdecision (some peoplehave more respect forothers who are olderand wiser); everyonedepends on each otherLeader determineswho, where, what,when, and why;leadership could beinherited (usually) orearned; high or lowstatus depends onrelationship with theleaderBig leader with a lotof power; manypeopleworking/helpingunder him; peoplemust be convinced todo things such as goto war, othersvolunteer and showpride but there are noconsequences if theychoose not to goCould have multipleleaders; could haveone main person incharge and severalunder him to be ableto spread out thework (too manypeople to watchover); politicalleader might not bereligious or militaryleader; possible togo to jail if yourefuse to participatein certain activitiessuch as go to war;more lawsstatepolicies created auniform nationalcultureEconomic No status; egalitarian Agriculture,sometimes haveanimals; nobody isdenied access togoods; no status basedon money; they trade,don’t have currency;everyone is equalSpecialists, manyoccupations, classes(elite—notnecessarily related toleader)Many classesinvolved; promoteseconomic unity byabolishing internalcustoms and tollsIdeology Stories/history/beliefsare told orally; some arelearning how to writenow; shamans could bemale or female and areconsidered to be aphysical healer and theconnection between thespiritual and physicalworld, they might havemore knowledgeReflects politicalorganization; morepeople = moreshamans; shamans canhave otheroccupations, such as afarmer; shamans cansometimes be chosenif they had a calling oran epiphany; have aleader; Temples, priests;political leader canalso be religiousleader but doesn’thave to beUsually have onesingle belief, somestates have many/multipleSettlements Band doesn’t travelwith their home, theybuild new ones and theyare always on the move(every 3 weeks or so);homes are mobile, usenature for homes(caves, etc); use skins,twigs, and localresources; they hunt,gather and follow food,food: 80%fruits/veggies, 20%gameLive in a village;homes are permanent;live with families; livein long houses with150-200 people (entireextended family livestogether), big room inthe center just for theharvestHomes are permanentmounds built withsoil; villages are builtsurrounding thecapital; centralmarketplace is set incapitalMultiple urban areascontrolled bysingular leader;territory issemisacred andnontransferable(borders dividingland exist)Materials Whatever they cancarry while they travel;hunting, gathering tools,clothes, musicalinstruments, jewelry,handy tools and cookingtoolsSkins, crops, animals,other tools orinstruments; surplusgoods allow them tomake ceramics andother storage vesselsSame as band andtribes but probably ingreater quantity;exotic materials fromother places (due totrade from outside)Even more extensivethan the prior three;more machinery,jobs, and land toproduce more goodsand productsWays ofacquiringgoods/materialsAll from naturalenvironmentsTrade, goodsnetworking, somelocally availableresourcesHuge tradingnetworks; can sendout groups of peopleto get things that arehundreds of milesaway; central marketplaceTrade; currencyExamples Kung! San group inAfricaIraqoi village Cahokia (outside ofprehistoric St. Louis);Calusa Indians (FortMyers areafish,shellfish, shellmounds)Aka a country2. Know who they are, where they live, and how they exploit their environment. Why are lowland and highland Yanomamo different?a. Settlements: i. Village size: can be as small as 40 to 50 people or as large as 300 people; decrease insize when fissioning occurs; in all cases, there are many more children and babies than adults (due to a short life expectancy)ii. Housing: The Yanomami live in large, circular, communal houses called yanos or shabonos. The central area is used for activities such as rituals, feasts, games and sometimes, even fighting. Each family has its own hearth (or fireplace) where food is prepared and cooked during the day. At night, hammocks are slung near the fire, which is stoked all night to keep people warm. Everyone has their own hammock, except for babies whom sleep with their mothers.iii. Gardens: this is where they grow much of their food; Yanomamo are experts at plant life, natural botanists, especially the shamansiv. Location: They settle between Venezuela and Brazil in South America near the Orinoco River. Today their total population stands at around 32,000. At over 9.6 million hectares, the Yanomamo territory in Brazil is twice the size of Switzerland. In Venezuela, the Yanomamo live in the 8.2 million hectare Alto Orinoco – Casiquiare Biosphere Reserve. Together, these areas form the largest

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FSU ANT 3212 - Study Guide for Test 2

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