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ANT3212 Peoples of the WorldStudy Guide for Test 2Dr. Amy KowalTHE YANOMAMOA cite that will help review: http://www.indian-cultures.com/cultures/yanomamo-indians/ 1. Elman Service’s classification of band, tribe, chiefdom and state and their attributes. The classifications are in order from smallest to largest. a. Band : the simplest form of human society. A band generally consists of a small kin group, no larger than an extended family or clan; it has been defined as consisting of no more than 100 individuals. b. Tribe : societies organized largely on the basis of kinship, especially corporate descent groups (see clan and kinship); is viewed, historically or developmentally, as a social group existing before the development of, or outside of, states. The Yanomamo are a tribal society.c. Chiefdom : is a political economy that organizes regional populations through a hierarchy of the chief(s); a form of social organization more complex than a tribe or a band society, and less complex than a state or a civilization. d. State : an autonomous political unit encompassing many communities within its territory, having a centralized government with the power to collect taxes, draft men for work or war, and decree and enforce lawsBand Tribe Chiefdom StateSocial 24-40 people; not many; some groups are gender and age specific; developed by their kinship1000 or more people; families live together and spend much time togetherTens of thousands of people; able to see different building sizes (some larger than others, in pp pic); changes in social stratification are based on: wealth, power, and prestige/fameToo many to count (more than chiefdoms); a more centralized and uniform public administration (smaller and population is less diverse)Political No leader; group consensus; everyone has equal say no matter age and gender; if there’s a conflict, resolved by group decision (some people have more respect for others who are older and wiser); everyone depends on each otherLeader determines who, where, what, when, and why; leadership could be inherited (usually) or earned; high or low status depends on relationship with the leaderBig leader with a lot of power; many people working/helping under him; people must be convinced to do things such as go to war, others volunteer and show pride but there are no consequences if they choose not to goCould have multiple leaders; could have one main person in charge and several under him to be able to spread out the work (too many people to watch over); political leader might not be religious or military leader; possible to go to jail if you refuse to participate in certain activities such as go to war; more lawsstate policies created a uniform national cultureEconomic No status; egalitarian Agriculture, Specialists, many Many classessometimes have animals; nobody is denied access to goods; no status based on money; they trade, don’t have currency; everyone is equaloccupations, classes (elite—not necessarily related to leader)involved; promotes economic unity by abolishing internal customs and tollsIdeology Stories/history/beliefs are told orally; some are learning how to write now; shamans could be male or female and are considered to be a physical healer and the connection between the spiritual and physical world, they might have more knowledgeReflects political organization; more people = more shamans; shamans can have other occupations, such as a farmer; shamans can sometimes be chosen if they had a calling or an epiphany; have a leader; Temples, priests; political leader can also be religious leader but doesn’t have to beUsually have one single belief, some states have many/ multipleSettlements Band doesn’t travel with their home, they build new ones and they are always on the move (every 3 weeks or so); homes are mobile, use nature for homes (caves, etc); use skins, twigs, and local resources; they hunt, gather and follow food, food: 80% fruits/veggies, 20% gameLive in a village; homes are permanent; live with families; live in long houses with 150-200 people (entire extended family lives together), big room in the center just for the harvestHomes are permanent mounds built with soil; villages are built surrounding the capital; central marketplace is set in capitalMultiple urban areas controlled by singular leader; territory is semisacred and nontransferable (borders dividing land exist)Materials Whatever they can carry while they travel; hunting, gathering tools, clothes, musical instruments, jewelry, handy tools and cooking toolsSkins, crops, animals, other tools or instruments; surplus goods allow them to make ceramics and other storage vesselsSame as band and tribes but probably in greater quantity; exotic materials from other places (due to trade from outside)Even more extensive than the prior three; more machinery, jobs, and land to produce more goods and productsWays of acquiring goods/materialsAll from natural environmentsTrade, goods networking, some locally available resourcesHuge trading networks; can send out groups of people to get things that are hundreds of miles away; central market placeTrade; currencyExamples Kung! San group in AfricaIraqoi village Cahokia (outside of prehistoric St. Louis); Calusa Indians (Fort Myers areafish, shellfish, shell mounds)Aka a country2. Know who they are, where they live, and how they exploit their environment. Why are lowland and highland Yanomamo different?a. Settlements: i. Village size: can be as small as 40 to 50 people or as large as 300 people; decrease in size when fissioning occurs; in all cases, there are many more children and babies than adults (due to a short life expectancy)ii. Housing: The Yanomami live in large, circular, communal houses called yanos or shabonos. The central area is used for activities such as rituals, feasts, games and sometimes, even fighting. Each family has its own hearth (or fireplace) where food is prepared and cooked during the day. At night, hammocks are slung near the fire, which is stoked all night to keep people warm. Everyone has their own hammock, except for babies whom sleep with their mothers.iii.Gardens: this is where they grow much of their food; Yanomamo are experts at plant life, natural botanists, especially the shamansiv. Location: They settle between Venezuela and Brazil in South America near the Orinoco River. Today their total population stands at around 32,000. At over 9.6 million hectares, the Yanomamo territory

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FSU ANT 3212 - Study Guide for Test 2

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