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ANT3212 Peoples of the World Study Guide for Test 2 Dr Amy Kowal THE YANOMAMO A cite that will help review http www indian cultures com cultures yanomamo indians 1 Elman Service s classification of band tribe chiefdom and state and their attributes The classifications are in order from smallest to largest the simplest form of human society A band generally consists of a small kin group no a Band larger than an extended family or clan it has been defined as consisting of no more than 100 individuals societies organized largely on the basis of kinship especially corporate descent groups see b Tribe clan and kinship is viewed historically or developmentally as a social group existing before the development of or outside of states The Yanomamo are a tribal society chief s a form of social organization more complex than a tribe or a band society and less complex than a state or a civilization an autonomous political unit encompassing many communities within its territory having a d State centralized government with the power to collect taxes draft men for work or war and decree and enforce laws is a political economy that organizes regional populations through a hierarchy of the c Chiefdom Social Band 24 40 people not many some groups are gender and age specific developed by their kinship Tribe 1000 or more people families live together and spend much time together Political No leader group consensus everyone has equal say no matter age and gender if there s a conflict resolved by group decision some people have more respect for others who are older and wiser everyone depends on each other Leader determines who where what when and why leadership could be inherited usually or earned high or low status depends on relationship with the leader Chiefdom Tens of thousands of people able to see different building sizes some larger than others in pp pic changes in social stratification are based on wealth power and prestige fame Big leader with a lot of power many people working helping under him people must be convinced to do things such as go to war others volunteer and show pride but there are no consequences if they choose not to go State Too many to count more than chiefdoms a more centralized and uniform public administration smaller and population is less diverse Could have multiple leaders could have one main person in charge and several under him to be able to spread out the work too many people to watch over political leader might not be religious or military leader possible to go to jail if you refuse to participate in certain activities such as go to war more laws state policies created a uniform national culture Economic No status egalitarian Agriculture Specialists many Many classes Stories history beliefs are told orally some are learning how to write now shamans could be male or female and are considered to be a physical healer and the connection between the spiritual and physical world they might have more knowledge Band doesn t travel with their home they build new ones and they are always on the move every 3 weeks or so homes are mobile use nature for homes caves etc use skins twigs and local resources they hunt gather and follow food food 80 fruits veggies 20 game Whatever they can carry while they travel hunting gathering tools clothes musical instruments jewelry handy tools and cooking tools All from natural environments Ideology Settlements Materials Ways of acquiring goods materials sometimes have animals nobody is denied access to goods no status based on money they trade don t have currency everyone is equal Reflects political organization more people more shamans shamans can have other occupations such as a farmer shamans can sometimes be chosen if they had a calling or an epiphany have a leader Live in a village homes are permanent live with families live in long houses with 150 200 people entire extended family lives together big room in the center just for the harvest occupations classes elite not necessarily related to leader involved promotes economic unity by abolishing internal customs and tolls Temples priests political leader can also be religious leader but doesn t have to be Usually have one single belief some states have many multiple Homes are permanent mounds built with soil villages are built surrounding the capital central marketplace is set in capital Multiple urban areas controlled by singular leader territory is semisacred and nontransferable borders dividing land exist Skins crops animals other tools or instruments surplus goods allow them to make ceramics and other storage vessels Same as band and tribes but probably in greater quantity exotic materials from other places due to trade from outside Even more extensive than the prior three more machinery jobs and land to produce more goods and products Trade currency Trade goods networking some locally available resources Huge trading networks can send out groups of people to get things that are hundreds of miles away central market place Cahokia outside of prehistoric St Louis Calusa Indians Fort Myers area fish shellfish shell mounds Examples Kung San group in Africa Iraqoi village Aka a country 2 Know who they are where they live and how they exploit their environment Why are lowland and highland Yanomamo different a Settlements i Village size can be as small as 40 to 50 people or as large as 300 people decrease in size when fissioning occurs in all cases there are many more children and babies than adults due to a short life expectancy ii Housing The Yanomami live in large circular communal houses called yanos or shabonos The central area is used for activities such as rituals feasts games and sometimes even fighting Each family has its own hearth or fireplace where food is prepared and cooked during the day At night hammocks are slung near the fire which is stoked all night to keep people warm Everyone has their own hammock except for babies whom sleep with their mothers iii Gardens this is where they grow much of their food Yanomamo are experts at plant life natural botanists especially the shamans iv Location They settle between Venezuela and Brazil in South America near the Orinoco River Today their total population stands at around 32 000 At over 9 6 million hectares the Yanomamo territory in Brazil is twice the size of Switzerland In Venezuela the Yanomamo live in the 8 2 million hectare Alto Orinoco Casiquiare Biosphere Reserve Together these areas form the largest forested indigenous

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FSU ANT 3212 - Study Guide for Test 2

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