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FSU AMH 2010 - Final Review

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Final ReviewTuesday, April 30, 20134:08 PM Immigration:•MobilityoTrade: Ex. Arrowheads show movement of early peoples.•AdaptabilityoMoney-sophisticated economic values•Wompem•DiversityoHousing typesoMany different N.A. languages•Very complex•Very important for diversity/identity The English:•Arrive in late 17th century1.Mobile: Cross Atlantica.Tiny supply shipsb.By 1750, occupied 8 territories2.Adaptablea.Sugar refineries, tobacco farms2.Diversitya.Religioni.Protestants and Catholicsb.Otheri.Differing class/social statusesii.Different regions of origin Europeans encountered the aftermath of an epidemic that swept most of North America•The stumbled upon a relatively empty landscape, sparsely populated by natives Colonial Era Begins•England's Main ColoniesoJamestown, VirginiaoPlymouth ColonyoMassachusetts Bay Colony •Why did the English come?oPushes(internal, domestic)i.1550-1600: Population boom, causing:1.Population growing faster than well being2.Inflation3.Reduction in real wages(stuff's more expensive, salary worth less)ii.Economic Change1.Monarch allows Enclosure Actsa.Transform agricultural land to pastoral lands(for sheep)i.WHY?: Money- monarch wants liquid money, wool from sheep will provide itii.Effects: Drove large numbers of peasants from land1.Cotters-peasants who carried bedding with themii.Religious Conflict1.Protestant Reformation-16th through 17th century Englanda."Puritans" referring to extreme religious reformersb.People look elsewhere for places of worship i.Consequences of Pushes?: Social Problems1.Crime2.Vagrancy("idleness", which was illegal)3.Revoltii. a.Pullsi.National Security: Spain is dominant power1.How to solve?: Get more moneya.Results in privateering(state sponsored piracy)2.First pull= support bases for privateeringa.Results in formation of coloniesii.Economic Problems1.Need new markets for English goods, especially woola.Old markets at Antwerp were flooded with goods, market collapsed2.Search for new markets leads to interest in Northwest Passagea.Because the Dutch had control of eastern harbors to East Indiesb.Didn't exist at the time(dumb idea)c.Martin Frobisheri.3 voyages searching for NW Passage 2 Pulls1. Security2. Economic Problems 3 Types of colonies1.Outposta.Sustenance for privateers2.Extractive Colonya.Gather valuable raw materials2.Settlementa.Sustain itself through large scale colonial settlement •Virginia starts as an extractive colonyoBusiness Enterprise•Horribly unsuccessful•Jamestowno1607-1624- Massive population loss of early colonists•Sending people who aren't equipped to survive to find commoditiesGoldsmiths, Jewelers, etc.•Lack of farmers, carpenters, laborers, etc. cause of failureo1618: Virginia Company Reforms•Move from extractive company to settlement colonyGive settlers landRent land to those who can't affordTax colonist's produce off of landoPowhattan Rebellion•English pigs eat Indian food, Indians kill pigs, English kill Indians, Indians rebel•Consequences: 1/3 English pop. DieEnglish livestock dieEthnic cleansing of Indians justifiedoVirginia Company goes bankrupt•Virginia becomes a royal colony•Only survives because of tobacco•Expectations: oValuable stuff, lots of Indian labor•RealityoNo stuff, no Indian labor•Consequences: Famine and no profit Leaders1.Captain John Smith-Governor of Virginia Colonya.Soldier of fortuneb.Captured and sold into slavery, escapedc.Goes to America2.John Winthrope-Governor of Massachusetts Bay Colonya.Nice familyb.Attended Cambridgec.Prominent Attorneyd.London government workere.Adopted Calvinist Protestantism MBC vs. Virginia Colony•MotivesoVirginians: ProfitoMBC: Piety•Occupants:oVirginia: •Male•Young•Poor•Ill-equippedoMBC:•FamiliesProvided laborAble to reproduce•People suited to build•Production: oMassachusetts: Diversity!•Rum Trade(sugars, molasses)•Fur, fish•Rye, candlesoVirginia: Only one primary export!•Tobacco Work: •Families are crucial element of production Indentured Servitude:•People have an indenture contract•New World indentured servants are different than old world:oAmerican servants are poor, older, males who are treated severely for 4-8 yearsoAmerican servants cost money, in England they're free•1/2 of ALL European immigrants came as indentured servantsoThey all go to Virginia•Massachusetts:oFamilies produce•Virginia:oServants and slaves produce-"society with slaves to SOCIETY OF SLAVES" Slaves:•Why do slaves become prevalent in Virginia?oEconomics•Labor costs riseEnglish living conditions improve(less willing indentures, prices go up)Rising costs of living in colonies(cost of good land has risen•Changes in distribution of wealthBy 1700, fewer plantation owners with more moneyInitial cost of slaves is very, very high•Rise of small class of rich who can purchase slaves•Slaves reproduce, helping the already rich•Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade changes1698: RAC monopoly ends, privatizations flourishes•Summary: Virginian Transformation to Slave SocietyoDramatic Labor Cost IncreaseoGreater Wealth ConcentrationsoBetter Access to Slave Trade Markets Spanish Colony vs. MA and VA:•ReligionoMA/VA: ProtestantoFlorida: Catholic•Population(1710)oMA-60,000oVA-50,000oFlorida:5,000•Economy:oMA- Diverse agricultural and mercantileoVA-Plantation agricultureoFL- Livestock and modest agriculture•Settlement:oMA-TownsoVA-PlantationsoFL-Catholic Missions Spanish Missions:•Populations:oFriarsoSoldiersoArtisans and MERCHANTSoLocal Appalachee Indians•Produced food, traded for European goodsLeads to Cycle of Dependence•Indians dependent on European goods, can't survive without them•Timucua IndiansTimucua Indians•Begin to settle around Spanish missions•Epidemics oKill off many Indians•Measles kills thousands in 1659•WaroEntangles Timucua in European conflicts•Due to proximity to missions•Carolina ColonyoSlave Economy•Self-Manumitted slaves run to Florida•North Carolinians armed Indians as "bounty hunters"To retrieve lost propertyLeads to Timucua being captured and enslaved•English soldiers and Indian alliesoAttack Spanish and Native settlements in N. Florida•1763-Treaty of ParisoSpanish cedes Florida to Great Britain•59 Timucua sent to Cuba •Part 2-The Origins of the U.S.: From Colonies to Nation (1754-1865) Early America: A Dangerous NeighborhoodoMid-1700s, France controls much more of North America than


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