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SOCL 2001.9Instructor: Skylar GremillionRoom: Lockett B5Office: 121 Stubbs HallOffice Hours: T.TH. 10am - noon or by appointmentOffice Phone: 225-578-1648Email: [email protected] #3: Chapters 9-12Date: 5.10.14Location: 005 LockettSmall scantron4.8.14RaceRace is a myth?• The concept of race is largely socially constructed• Race - a groups of people who share a set of characteristics typically, but not always physical ones- are said to share a common bloodline.• The concept of race has some biological element (little), but also attached to social characteristics.The early days• Race in the early modern world was often based on biblical or religious definitions of race.• European explorers explained the genetic differences by interweaving them into their holy scripture.• Africans explained as descend from Ham, cursed in Genesis 9.Scientific racism• The Enlightenment moved the world toward science and the western definition of race adjusted accordingly.• Scientific racism describes theories of race from the 18th century• Theories linked racial differences to scientific (biological) explanations rather than biblical ones.• Theories were often used to explain and often justify differences in social status or legal status of different races.• Social darwinism• "Survival of the fittest"• All races= same species• Some races were more evolved, better fit to survive or rule others.• Eugenics is a pseudoscience that links social and psychological temperament to bloodlines.• H.H. Goddard argued that immigrants were lesser than native-born americans due to their test scores.• Nativism (should only be the original people) gained social support during this period (19th century into early 20th century)In scientific racism…• Physical features were the most common biological element.• Phrenology was the science of head bumps. The shape and bumps on one's head were linked to psychological temperament.• Which also happened to be linked to race • Leading us to racial classification based on skull measurementsOther: the group outside of the dominant group20th century• Anti-semitism brings about some shifts in the common classifications of race.• Nazi's update eugenics and bring back classification by racial measurement in order to identify jews.• In America in the mid 20th century, they focused on hard lined differences between races based on blood.• One Drop Rule: the belief that one drop of black blood made a person black.• Tied to laws about miscegenation.Miscegenation• Multiracial marriage• Dated, politically charged term• Laws against intermarriage overturned by Loving v. Virginia, 1967Race or ethnicity?• Often used interchangeably, but are separate things.• Race• Externally imposed• Involuntary• Hierarchal• Exclusive• Unequal• Ethnicity• Voluntary• Self defined• Non Hierarchal• Fluid• Cultural and planar• US has thousands of different ethnic groups• Sometimes they are symbolic 4.10.14RaceRacial realities• Race - a groups of people who share a set of characteristics typically, but not always physical ones- are said to share a common bloodline.• All humans are 99% genetically identical.• A social construct, changing over time and placeRacism• Belief that separate races possess different and unequal human traits• Many historical efforts to explain race were biased due to ethnocentrism• Prejudice: negative thoughts and feelings about an ethnic or racial group. (thinking)• Discrimination: harmful or negative acts against people deemed inferior based on race. (doing)Merton's TypologyNon-discriminator DiscriminatorNon-prejudice All weather liberal Reluctant liberalPrejudiced Timid bigot All weather bigot•Symbolic Ethnicity• Individualistic in nature, without real social cost.Racialization• Formation of a new identity in which new ideological boundaries of difference are drawn around a formerly unnoticed group of people.Whites• Socially constructed• Depends on historical period…• White Privilege• Assumption: white = neutral/normal• "Invisible" set of advantages enjoyed by whites• Modern white supremacists (NAAWP) embrace research on white achievements, but don't acknowledge privilege.Charts• Income by race• Educational attainment by race• Marital status4.24.14FamilyHousework in the 20th centuryM.T.W.TH - Office hours finals weekEndogamyExogamyMonogamyPolygyny• Having more than one partner at a time• Polyandry• Multiple husbands• Polygyny• Multiple wivesPreindustrial family• Household = miniature economy• Depends on kinship networks• Ties based on blood or marriageIndustrial revolution• Created a division between wrk and home• Men - public sphere - work for wages• Women - private sphere - housework, childcareCulture of domesticity• Idea that true womanhood centers on domestic responsibility and child rearingFamilies after WWII• Peak of middle-class nuclear family• Father, mother, biological children• Idealized, historically unusual• Thriving economy, government assistance.Family and work• Significant changes since 19702• Higher divorce rates• Lowering marriage and fertility• More women in workforceSecond shifts• Unpaid labor inside the home performed after paid labor• Cooking, laundry, childcare• Most women's responsibility• Counting job, housework, men work 15 hours less per weekIndividualism in the US• Focus on personal growth, happiness• Idealistic view of relationships• High rates of marriage and divorceDivorce rates (p459)Effects of divorce on children• Lower future socioeconomic status• Lower self esteem, relationship difficulties• Context matters- timing, level of hostility• Married parents = better child outcomes• IF the marriage is happy4.29.14EducationEducation• Process through which academic, social, and cultural ideas and tools are developed.• Services many direct functions, and a few latent functions.• Latent: hidden functions; social and cultural ideas and tools• Manifest (direct): obvious; academics• Functional illiteracy• 14%• Innumeracy• Having insufficient math skills to function in society• 22%Human Capital• Knowledge and skills that makes someone more productive and bankable.Socialization• Hidden curriculum - nonacademic and less over functions of education.• Helps social cohesion, but has also been used to impose dominant cultural values on outsiders or

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LSU SOCL 2001 - Exam #3: Chapters 9-12

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