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P a g e | 1SOCL 2001ALL NOTES FOR TEST 2Table of ContentsNetworks and Organization 2Deviance 3Stratification 5Gender 7Gender and Sexuality 8Study Guide Questions 10Answers 12P a g e | 2Networks and Organization- Simmel—interested in psychology of pure numbers.o Dyad=group of two, most intimate form of social life, but possibly the least stable; they are mutually dependent, which means that if one person leaves the group, the group nolonger existso Triad=group of three or more, you lose intimacy, but it becomes more stable. You can increase possible interactions or plot against a third persono Possible roles in a triad Mediator=the conflict resolver Tertius gaudens=one who profits from others’ disagreement Divide et impera=one who purposefully breaks up others- Difference between tertius gaudens and divide et impera is intention/ if it already existed. One is divide et impera if they intentionally CAUSE a disagreement, and tertius gaudens if the disagreement already EXISTED.o Small groups=single focus, informal, equality, face to face—they get together to do one thing. Ex. study groupo Party groups=same as small, but multifocal. You know when it becomes a party when groups start to break off and talk about different things. o Large groups=formal, often have status differentiation. Ex. Large corporation- Cooleyo Primary groups (family, close friends) Intimate, face to face, strong influence on social networko Secondary groups (friends, acquaintances) Impersonal, exist as means to an end. Ex. School project.- Other ways of sortingo In group/out group—useful in describing groups with power inequality—in group has power, out group doesn’to Reference groups—useful for comparison, define identity. You compare yourself to other people to figure out who you are. Ex. State fair—always different kinds of people, you can find someone who’s worse than you.- Social networko A set of “ties” between individualso Tie=set of stories explaining our relationship to each network membero Narrative=sum of stories within a set of ties. Ex. College—you have ties with many people, and many sets of stories underneath this one category you call “college”o Embeddedness=refers to the degree to which ties are reinforced through indirect paths- Strength of weak tieso “friend of a friend”o Paradox—relatively weak ties, those not reinforced through indirect paths, often tend tobe quite valuable because they bring novel information o Explanation as to why who you know matters- Social networks transfer resourceso Going back and forth in your networkP a g e | 3o Could be emotional resources, time, physical resources- Social network analysiso Views social networks in terms of network theory, consisting of nodes and tieso Ex. Drawing out how many people you’ve slept with- Organizationso Social networks with a common purpose and structureo Have both structure and cultureo Organizational culture=the shared beliefs and behaviors within a social groupo Organizational structure=the ways power and authority are distributed in an organization- Social capitalo Information, connections, and skills that help individuals enter or gain power in networksDeviance- Deviance=any transgression of socially established norms- Informal deviance=minor violationso Ex. Standing backwards in an elevator- By watching, we learn how to interact in certain settings.- Formal deviance=crimeo Street crime=committed in public (i.e. not completely hidden circumstances) and often associated with violence, gangs, poverty. Amount of money/property damaged usually pales in comparison to…o White collar crime=committed by a professional against a corporation, agency, or other business. Ex. Check fraud, computer crime, piracy, bribery- Social controlo Mechanisms that create normative complianceo Anything that pushes you to adhere to a social norm and follow the rules of group lifeo Ex. A boy wears flowery pants to school and people laugh at himo Mechanisms for social control may not always work—not always completely scriptedo Ex. Glaring at a slow person in the self check out. It may make them go slower or mess up.- Informal social sanctionso Unspoken rules of social lifeo We are all simultaneously agents and objects of social order—we are always judging andbeing judgedo Awkwardness is what you usually get for breaking theseo These are the foundations of formal social control- Formal social sanctionso Rules/laws expressly set forth by a societyo Other people besides police enforce these—regular people enforce them, Ex. Your friend in the car telling you not to speedP a g e | 4o They aren’t uniform across social environments—Ex. Snitching. Against the law to withhold information from the police, but in some neighborhoods, it’s deviant to snitch.- Functionalist theories of devianceo Social cohesion How people form social bonds, relate to each other, and get along on a daily basis Mechanisms of social control are used to reinforce cohesiono Durkheim on social cohesion Collective conscience=shared assumptions of how the world works How society is put together determines how collective conscience works Mechanical solidarity=based on sameness—society works because we’re the same—people share the same goals Organic solidarity=based on difference and interdependence, like a clock.  Argues that either of these can lead to cohesion- Deviance and social controlo Punitive justice (mechanical) Making the violator suffer, thus defining boundaries and strengthening the collective; tries to scare youo Rehabilitative justice (organic) Examines specific circumstances of deviants, attempts to reform them Problem: not everyone can be reformedo Crime reduction Deterrence theory- Philosophy of criminal justice based on the notion that crime results from a rational calculation of its costs and benefits. If you’re scared of the cost of going to prison, you won’t commit a crime.- But criminals don’t always calculate their actions—other social factors besides the individual factor into decisions Recidivism- Occurs when one who has been involved in the criminal justice system reverts back to crime- Can happen because of labeling theory/stigmaso Labeling theory We notice how others see or label us Our reactions to those labels help form the basis of our self-identity When someone sees us a certain way, we tend to act that wayo Stigma Negative labels that

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