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MSU ISS 210 - ISS unit 1 study guide

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Exam covers Chapters 1 – 3 in your Harrison text. Exam will be 50questions worth 2 points each.---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Be able to define and identify the following:Scientific Method-A method of explanation that develops and teststheories about how observable facts are related● Seeks to explain why human beings behave as they do1. ask q2. research existing source3. hypothesis4. conduct study5. conclusions6. report resultsScience-Any organized body of knowledgeVariables-a concept that has more than 1 value that we wish to understand or thinkwill influence another conceptHypothesis-Assert some relationship between observable facts orevents● Are two or more events or behaviors related?● Does either event or behavior cause the other?Inductive Reasoning-To observe one phenomenon or series ofphenomena and mega general assertions based on that observation● Specific to broadDeductive Reasoning-In fearing from a general theory to a particularcase● x=y and y=z so x=z● Starting point, Big to smallProbabilistic statement- A statement that applies to some proportion ofcircumstances● Reasoning from a specific to the generalNull hypothesis-A statement that the program or treatment has noeffectCorrelation-A significant statistical relationship● When 2 things are related but 1 does not cause the otherIdeology-Integrated system of ideas about values in general and theideal role of government in particular● They rationalize/justify power in societyPolitical ideologies-Political and economical ideologies gohand-in-hand with both political and economic structures driving topromote Ideals in terms of individual liberties, or equality, or theprotection of the political party or state● Political Ideology of classic Liberalism:○ Inalienable rights○ People create Social contract to protect rights○ Limited gov, gov cannot break rights that were made toprotect○ Equality of opportunity-everyone has chance to developindividual capacities to his or her natural limitsEconomic ideologies-Influenced by political Ideology and howgovernment should play a role in the economy.Kinds of government● monarchy(royal family rules)○ Constitutional○ traditional-● oligarchy(elite few hold power)○ Dictatorship-North Korea● democracy(people hold power)○ Republics or representative democracies use citizen-elected leaders torepresent their viewsKinds of economy-4 types of economic systems which decide how todeal with Scarcity● Traditional-An economy in which patterns of behaviorestablished over the long-term guide how individuals and groupsallocate scarce resources● Command(planned economy)-scarcity is address exclusively bythe government which decides how resources are distributed,what products are produced, the price of these products on themarketplace, and the price of Labor○ Socialism is one form of command economy● Market-Individuals decide what goods to purchase, what skills toacquire, the price they will charge for their labor, and what goodsthey will purchase with their income○ Gov plays no role● Mixed- individuals and the government both decide issues ofscarcity through the allocation and distribution of resources○ Most advanced economic systems are mixed○ debate about how much individual versus governmentScarcity-The fact that the thing of value: income, natural andman-made resources, capital, and time are limitedClassical Liberalism-Limits The Power of government and values thedignity, words, and freedom of the individual● Rejected the divine right of kings● Outgrowth of enlightenment (age of reason), specifically, naturallaw● Alternative vision as to how individuals anf gov should functionModern Liberalism-Accepts government power as a positive force infreeing people from poverty, ignorance, discrimination, and sicknessCommunism-Calls for The evolutionary Democratic replacement of theprivate enterprise system with government ownership of Industry● HATE capitalism, believes it creates unequal classes and 差別● Government owns everything and distributes to people equally● No private property/business● Not very successful/have not seen oneConservatism- ideology and emphasizing individual freedom fromgovernment control than maximum personal LibertyTotalitarianism-Incorporates all sections of society into the state● 1 ruler● Seen in faciest states, decides everything ro achieve a certaingoalSocialism-A system in which society, usually in the form of the government, owns andcontrols the means of production; relies on central; nationalism; wealth distributed● Same with communism as in HATES capitalism● BUT believes in individual rights therefore less gov power than communism● Has private propertiesNatural Law-The premise that the laws that govern human behaviorcome from the nature of humans themselves and can be universallyapplied● Murdering someone is badInalienable rights-rights that cannot be taken away from the gov● notably in classical liberalism, although observed by both modern liberalism andconservatism; unalienable rightsCapitalism-An economic system that protects private property, privateownership of businesses, and the freedom to buy and sell goods andservices, with a minimum of government intervention● USAElites-The few people who have power and control what is valued insocietyMasses-The many who do not have power many whose lives areshaped by institutions, events and leaders over which they have littlecontrolLegitimacy-The belief that the exercise of power is right or proper andthat people are morally obligated to submit to it. How we see people incharge, where do they get their source of power from? USA-presidentwhere does the president get the power from?-constitution, Tradition,legality, voting processes, etc Max Weber-Sources of legitimacy● EX: gov, church, military● 4 sources of legitimacy○ Tradition-Established beliefs in sanctity of authority andmoral need to obey leaders○ Charisma-Personal-heroic qualities of a leader○ Legality-A commitment to rules (not rulers) that bind bothleaders and people○ Rational-Legal Authority-Legitimacy conferred by rulesagreed on by both leaders and followersAuthority-Power that is exercised legitimatelyKarl Marx- Upper middle-class intellectual. wrote CommunistManifesto (1848) father of modern day communism rejectedcapitalism.● Supported people who do NOT have power to start a revolutionand change

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